tipu sultan letter to zaman shah


He gave land to landless and increased the taxes manifold but his earnings started decreasing due to widespread corruption and inefficiency. The Karnataka government also remained aloof. He had written in 1790-91 to Timur Shah, the father of Zaman Shah, and to the ministers of the court seeking military aid. Tipu was a tragic figure who is best forgotten and not glorified by the modern and resurgent India with secular ideals. Select letters of Tippoo Sultan to various public functionaries .. Advanced embedding details, examples, and help, Tipu Sultan, Fath Ali, Nawab of Mysore, 1753-1799, Terms of Service (last updated 12/31/2014). In Tipu’s rule, justice system as we know today was non-existent. Tipu Sultan was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employment of his father. COORG-BORN ACTRESS RASHMIKA MANDANNA IS ‘NATIONAL CRUSH OF INDIA 2020’. Tipu, during his short reign had humiliated followers of other religions, destroyed their places of worship and forcibly converted thousands of Hindus, Catholics and Kodavas into his faith. BOPANNA’S NEW BOOK: ‘ARE KODAVAS (COORGS) HINDUS?’. Allah preserves this device as 'Noa's Ark' and keeps cutting the extended sides of the infidels 'abandoned'. Soldiers in Bombay and Madras armies of the British were basically native Indians who with better leadership and training proved to be far superior to Tipu’s forces. This is evident from the numerous secret letters of his, in Persian and their replies thereto which were captured in original at Srirangapatna in May 1799 by the British and safely preserved at India Library in U.K. 2 (May 1999) pp. Help was offered initially but due to Persian attack on his country’s boarded Zaman Shah could not help the Sultan. Tipu Sultan was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employment of his father. Publication date 1811 Publisher London : Black, Parry, and Kingsbury Collection cdl; americana Digitizing sponsor Internet Archive Alyson Wieczorek Tipu Sultan in letters to Syed Abdul Dulai and his officer Budruz Zaman Khan respectively, gloats thus: With the grace of Prophet Mohammed and Allah, almost all Hindus in Calicut are converted to Islam. Your email address will not be published. However, Zaman Shah had to beat a retreat when his kingdom in Herat was attacked by Iran. That was the time when Mrs.Mahindra (mother of mr.Anand... Best wishes to Kodagu girl Rashmika. Related posts: Indian History Carnival – 45: Baburnamah, Rashtrakutas, Mughal Postal System, Camels, Tipu Sultan Fëanor quotes André Wink to argue that the rise and fall of the Rashtrakuta kingdom was connected to trade with Persian Gulf Towards the late 10th century, however, the great…; Seriously Sandeep Sandeep is on a roll. It is indeed shocking that the Government yields to timber lobby... Good note. Even poorly organized and armed Kodava Army under the inspiring leadership of Vira Raja, drove him and his forces out of Kodagu on their own. Tipu Sultan sought the help of Zaman Shah Durrani, the ruler Durrani Empire in Afghan, to defeat both the British and Maratha. Some years later—well before Gidwani came out with his eulogy [of Tipu Sultan]—there was a still more breathtaking re-evaluation of Tipu’s exploits in Malabar. Before coming in contact with the ruler of Afghanistan Zaman Shah, Tipu had a negotiation with Kabul to seek military support to stand against the British. Having withstood 32 invasions by Hyder and 16 by Tipu we fell at the 17th one, because we were a brave and trusting tribal people. However, Zaman Shah had to beat a retreat when his kingdom in Herat was attacked by Iran. Tipu Sultan : biography 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799 The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. The aim was not only to fight the British, but to subjugate all other Indian Kingdoms in the Deccan who came in the way of his self serving ambition. It is almost like Tipu had hired a PR firm in those days. After arrival of Zaman Shah in India in 1799, the British directed an action on his western boundary. A discriminating historian can make out that, Tipu unwittingly hastened the colonization of India by the British due to his despotic nature. Tippu sultan India's First freedom fighter , a Fan made Trailer On the fateful day of 4 May 1799, when in the morning, the Allied Army under the British, breached the Fort wall in the Southern side and commenced the assault, Tipu instead of leading the defensive battle was busy engaged in prayers hoping a divine intervention would save him . His body was found among the dead in the northern portion of the Fort. Tipu Sultan asks Zaman Shah, the ruler of Afghanistan to invade India and expel Kaffirs. Help was offered initially but due to Persian attack on his country’s boarded Zaman Shah could not help the Sultan. He commanded a corps of cavalry in the invasion of Carnatic in 1767 at age 16. Here also the British defeated Tipu's designs by exciting Shia-Sunni differences. Cariappa (retd) Coorg Person of the Year 2009, Dr Jagadeesh Subbaiah Moodera Coorg Person of the Year 2008, Dr Boverianda Nanjamma Chinnappa Coorg Person of the Year 2006, Dr Kavery Nambisan Coorg Person of the Year 2005, Public Interest Litigation filed before the Karnataka High Court, The 1993 Karnataka High Court Jamma Judgement in a Nutshell, Salient Features of the 1993 Jamma Judgement, Karnataka High Court Admits Jamma Petition, Autonomous Kodagu Council Is the Answer Dr Sandeep Shastri, Pro Vice-Chancellor, Jain University, The Way Forward for Kodagu: A Political Road Map. In fact the British did not allow Kodavas to enter Srirangapatna lest they would indulge in reprisals. Only on the borders of Cochin State a few are still not converted. At age 15, he accompanied his father against the British in the First Mysore War in 1766. The Mysore king also requested the help of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid in 1787 to beat the British. After facing substantial threats from the Marathas, Tipu Sultan began to correspond with Zaman Shah Durrani the ruler of the Afghan Durrani Empire, so they could defeat the Marathas and restore Shah Alam II to power.I. After the eunuch Ghulam Qadir had Shah Alam II blinded on 10 August 1788, Tipu Sultan is believed to have broken into tears. Tipu wooed the French, who were no less colonial in their designs, and sent letters to Napoleon Bonaparte and Zaman Shah of Afghanistan to create a grand international alliance to defeat the British. Tipu Sultan in History: Revisionism Revised Narasingha Sil1 Abstract This historiographical essay seeks to chart a middle course between what may be called Tipu bashing and, to borrow an expression from Anne Buddle, “Tipu Mania,” with a view to providing a balanced view of Tipu Sultan … Tipu lodged him in the suburbs of Sanjam, visited him frequently, and said at the time of his departure, “After you have made arrangements regarding the capital of the Sultanate of Persia, it is my wish that you and I in concert with Zaman Shah endeavour to regulate and put in order the countries of Hindustan and Dekhan.” The Prince agreed to the proposal and promised to co-operate. Thus Mysore, Bangalore, Darwar, Hassan, Ootacamund, Madikeri, Bhagamandala and many other historical places were renamed as Nazarabad, Jummalabad, Quarshed-Sawad, Khaemabad, Faiz Hissar,Jaffarabad,Jacobabad and so on. In his letter to the Governor of Bekal, Budruz Zaman Khan, in the year 1200 AH (1785 AD), Tipu approved of forced conversions of Nairs: "Your two letters, with the enclosed memorandums of the Nâimâ (Nair) captives, have been received. He ventured out only after lunch in the afternoon when it was too late after his brave commander, Sayyed Ghafur was killed and many of his trusted subordinates had deserted. When Tipu scoffed at it, the war horns were sounded and the attack on Seringapatanam, the 4th Anglo Mysore war took place where Tipu was killed. It was during this period (1786-1787) that Tippu Sultan sent embassies to the Turkish Sultan in Istanbul, Louis XVI of France, the Shah of Persia, the Sultan of Oman, and Zaman Shah of Afghanistan. The Mysore king also requested the help of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid in 1787 to beat the British. However, because of his internal problems , he could never advance farther than the Lahore. The great temple, he related, had been attacked by a large armed party of cavalry. REPUBLIC DAY MUSINGS: KODAVAS SHOULD SEEK RELIGIOUS MINORITY TAG, RATHER THAN SCHEDULED TRIBE STATUS, DEBATE: KARNATAKA’S INJUSTICE TO KODAGU IN SHARING CAUVERY WATER. He very cleverly, probably to please his mother and his Hindu Diwan Purnayya, left some temples near Mysore undisturbed; but had no qualms in confiscating the gold offerings in them to pay off fines imposed by the British. I got so many information. He was also, kind to some educated Brahmins who were useful to him in running the administration. Tipu also sent emissaries to Ottoman Turkey to garner support against the Britishers. Within 10 years, Tipu who had earned the wrath of fellow Indians including Muslims, had lost half of his Kingdom and had to agree for a humiliating treaty with the British. His short reign was a period of maladministration, tension and turmoil 11. Uploaded by Tipu did realize rather late that he was being isolated by other Indian States in the Deccan who had ganged up against him. Tipu Sultan (Urdu: ٹیپو سلطان ‎, Kannada : ಟಿಪ್ಪು ಸುಲ್ತಾನ್; 10 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), (Sayyid walShareef Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu) also known as the Tiger of Mysore, and Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.He was the eldest son of Sultan Hyder Ali of Mysore. Tipu also invited the Afghan ruler Zaman Shah to invade India and help the cause of Islam." When he arrived at Ghazni, which his father Sultan Ala ad-Din, had bestowed upon him as an appanage, he was joined by the troops of his father. He also distinguished himself in the First … Tipu in fact asked the Afghan strongman Zaman Shah Abdali (Durrani) (r. 1793-1800) to invade North India and is reported to have candidly confided to Lieutenant-Colonel Russel, commanding officer of the French detachment in the Mysore army: “I want to expel them [the British] from India. Its author, C.K. He lied to the Kodavas that he was going to surrender at Bhagamandala and when we showed up without weapons to accept his surrender (that was our custom, but that custom should not have been extended to a ruthless person like him without honour and principles) his soldier surrounded the Kodavas who did not have weapons and were therfore killed and then the kingdom was thrown into confusion. However, because of his internal problems , he could never advance farther than the Lahore. In the late eighteenth century, the Durrani empire was the only force that could neutralize the increasing influence of the East India Company or support the waning Indian Muslim power. Letter for Tipu's Zaman Shah (i) "Your Excellency You may have been informed that the purpose of my great desire is Jihad (Religion war). Tipu contacted Zaman Shah, the ruler of Afghanistan who ascended the throne in 1792. Tipu Sultan in History: Revisionism Revised Narasingha Sil1 Abstract This historiographical essay seeks to chart a middle course between what may be called Tipu bashing and, to borrow an expression from Anne Buddle, “Tipu Mania,” with a view to providing a balanced view of Tipu Sultan … Yes, there is correspondence between Tipu and Zaman Shah, the grandson of Ahmed Shah Abdali. His son Sultan Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, also known as Jalal ad-Din Khwarazm Shah (1220-1231), was pursued by the Mongols from Khorasan to Ghazni. He felt that a certain balance of power could be restored in the subcontinent, which would act as a check to the growing influence of the East India Company. Has anyone read the book? on November 19, 2008. Select letters of Tippoo Sultan to various public functionaries .. by Tipu Sultan, Fath Ali, Nawab of Mysore, 1753-1799; Kirkpatrick, William, 1754-1812. During two approach marches of allied armies to Srirangapatna in 1792 and 1799, the local people voluntarily gave them full cooperation in way of logistics and information indicating Tipu was not at all that popular ruler as made out to be. RICH PLANTERS IN COORG POCKET CRORES IN FLOOD RELIEF FROM GOVT BY DEPRIVING NEEDY FARMERS. Tipu, the Nawabs and fundamentalist clerics therefore sought help from the Durranis, using the “infidel threat” bogey. 541–543 During the early period of Tipu Sultan’s reign in particular, he appears to have been as strict as his father Hyder Ali against any non-Muslim accused of … A military history student would know that the so called Tiger Tipu, in spite of his own bragging and flattery indulged by his paid Court historians, did not fight a single battle of significance. Zaman Shah was forced to rush back to retrieve his kingdom. The next was to approach the Ottomans at Constantinople (now Istanbul), who were the Khalipha’s or Caliph, ... (Sultan Selim’s) letter imploring Tipu not to fight the British. It is quixotic that he returned some of them with the inscription ‘Gifted by Tipu’! Get the Coorg's latest news posts delivered to your inbox: By Mookonda Kushalappa  I happened to be reading an article in a national newspaper titled 'Tipu Sultan: a secular internationalist,... Post was not sent - check your email addresses! See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive. Even before the accession of Zaman Shah Tipu had negotiated with Kabul to secure assistance. It was during this period (1786-1787) that Tippu Sultan sent embassies to the Turkish Sultan in Istanbul, Louis XVI of France, the Shah of Persia, the Sultan of Oman, and Zaman Shah of Afghanistan. These letters which are easily accessible to serious historians and are clinching evidence that Tipu was neither a nationalist nor a secularist as made out to be, are deliberately being hidden to distort history. This letter was part of Tipu’s invitation to Zaman Shah to invade India, and establish the Sword of Islam in the country, and free it from the darkness of the Kafirs. In History of Tipu Sultan, Mohibbul Hasan Khan wrote that the throne was ‘supported by a wooden tiger, standing erect, covered with gold. Tipu Sultan was a bigot, a mass murderer and a religious fanatic who terrorised non Muslims that lived in his domain. He commanded a corps of cavalry in the invasion of Carnatic in 1767 at age 16. Make them all Hindus with them and kill them if they do not accept Islam. WHAT ‘HINDUTVA’ HAS GOT TO DO WITH MATCHMAKING FOR COORGS? Kareem, a former editor of the Kerala State Gazetteer , went so far as to show Tipu as a philosopher and a great sufi, who viewed the whole cosmos as a mosque! The first break on Tipu’s aggressive moves was applied by the British in 1784 in the way of Treaty of Mangalore. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN 2000 CARS CONVERGE ON ONE-HORSE TOWN AMMATHI, ONLINE CAMPAIGN AGAINST RAILWAY LINE TO COORG GOES VIRAL, DC ANNIES JOY EXITS FROM COORG. Tipu, the Nawabs and fundamentalist clerics therefore sought help from the Durranis, using the “infidel threat” bogey. So, where did Tipu display his statesmanship and whose freedom was he fighting for? His French instructors taught him to hate British who were their bitter enemy; but they had no love lost for Tipu either. His frenetic effort to persuade Napoleon to invade India after Egypt (1798) is well documented in the world historical archives. Violation of this Treaty and his continued aggression against his neighbors coupled with his declaring himself as Badshah, led to the British capturing Bangalore forts without much opposition in 1791. However, the negative aspects of his character have been completely ignored while making such tall claims. The Afghan king, Zaman Shah Durrani, was Abdali’s grandson. As an incentive, he gave better promotional prospects at the cost of merit and exempted fellow Muslims from paying certain taxes. Also, many Nawabs were being hard-pressed by the rising powers. Tipu Sultan : biography 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799 During his rule, Tipu Sultan laid the foundation for a dam where the famous Krishna Raja Sagara Dam across the river Cauvery was later built. Their tasks were taken over by his own officials who over a period became more corrupt. The letter was sent to Edward Wood, Chief Secretary to the Government (EIC) on July 10, 1820 Just as the Company was merciless to Tipu’s family, so the Government of India ignored them for decades together. to Zaman Shah, Tipu mentioned "At this time the English having received intimation of the arrival of the ambassadors of the Sircar at your Highness court and of the first connection established between the two states, have taken Umbrage and in concert with the infidels and the turbulent, taken up Taking cue from Anglo-French rivalry, Tipu Sultan tapped whatever French help was possible, mainly in upgrading military technology. After that, he never dared to venture out; but desperately sought French help which the British came to know. Tipu was pampered from childhood by self seekers who egged him on to commit one blunder after another, finally abandoning him. Her name definitely bring further... Educationist Zaru Ganapathy and Industrialist Ashok Kumar Shetty, Coorg Person of the Year, 2018, Indian Badminton player Ashwini Ponnappa, Coorg Person of the Year, 2017, Cartoonist Nala Ponnappa, Coorg Person of the Year, 2016, M.R. Hyder Ali at the time of his death in 1782 had expressed a doubt whether Tipu would be able to retain it. The invaders had mercilessly sacked the complex, stealing over Rs 60 lakh of … Continue reading "Tipu Sultan: Noble or Savage?" The British marshaled support from the Nizam and the Marathas and as a final ploy delivered the Caliph’s (Sultan Selim’s) letter imploring Tipu not to fight the British. To be a great country of the future, let all of us Indians, learn to be more truthful and honest in whatever we do – including writing history. He tried corresponding with Zaman Shah, the ruler of Afghanistan as well as Karim Khan of Iran. In these letters sent through his emissaries with costly gifts, Tipu had invited King Zaman Shah of Afghanistan, Fateh Ali Khan of Persia, Caliph of Turkey and ruler of Iran to join forces and invade North India for which he had promised full cooperation. Pages 486-87 are printed with a double impression making the page blurry. Tipu Sultan in Mysore had been checked by the British about this time. His final moments were more like an act of desperation of a failed man than that of a brave commander who could inspire his followers. In a perverse application of the proverb of what’s sauce for goose is sauce for gander, a similar application of historical distortion has been carried out with regard to Tipu Sultan, who in many ways is the Aurangzeb of the South. His, so-called bravery was only against unarmed civilians or poorly equipped irregulars. Hyder who was too busy fighting and being an illiterate left his son’s training to Persian Islamic scholars who taught him to love Islam and hate other religions, just as is happening in some Madrasas in Pakistan. The excellent leadership given by Sir Richard Wellesly, the future Duke of Wellington as opposed to Tipu’s lack of resolve in this crucial battle has been commented upon adversely by Tipu’s own Court historian, Mir Husein Kirmani. In order to achieve his selfish ambition, he had not only treacherously invited foreign Islamic countries to invade India; but invited France an European power to come to his aid much against the advice of Caliph of Turkey. In the Third Mysore War which followed in 1792, Tipu capitulated without a fight and was forced to conclude a humiliating treaty losing half his Kingdom and giving away two of his sons as hostages to the British. Narasimhan Coorg Person of the Year 2013, Vineet Devaiah Coorg Person of the Year 2012, P.M. Belliappa Coorg Person of the Year 2011, Rohan Bopanna Coorg Person of the year 2010, Air Marshal K.C. Recognised by the GOI as the Representative of the Tipu Sultan Family following the death of his father, 11 th August 1872. privately. ACTRESS NIDHI: INTOLERANCE TO COORG WOMEN MARRYING NON-COORGS, AUTHOR P.T. Over the years the politicians and pseudo- historians combined have been brain washing people, to make us believe that Tipu was the first freedom fighter, an outstanding military commander, a great statesman, an excellent administrator, a secularist to the core and so on. Tipu himself left behind personal accounts of his atrocities against the Hindus. This book also gives the account of Hyder Ali, father of Tipu Sultan. Tipu’s treatment of his prisoners, including unarmed civilians, women and children were inhuman. The Afghan king, Zaman Shah Durrani, was Abdali’s grandson. So this was Tipu Sultan’s letter to the Afghan king named Zaman Shah, written sometime in 1794/95. Required fields are marked *. In between, not finding a timely response from France, Tipu conspired with Zaman Shah Durrani the Afghanistan King and Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid (1787) in Turkey to create an Islamic force against Maratha. Tipu had inherited a vast Kingdom from his father, Hyder Ali . Also, many Nawabs were being hard-pressed by the rising powers. Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as Tipu Sahab or the Tiger of Mysore, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore and a pioneer of rocket artillery. HER PERFORMANCE WAS A MIXED BAG, HOMAGE: P.G. Tipu Sultan Hindus killer (1) Tipu Sultan wrote a letter to his army helicopter of Calicut on 14 December 1788- "I am sending two of your followers with you to Mir Hussain Ali. This book was an eye-opener for me. Zaman Shah Durrani (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic: زماں شاہ درانی), (c. 1770 – 1844) was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1793 until 1800. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Even though Kannada was the local language, he made Persian as the official language of the State. Apart from being close alliance with the French, Tipu had developed union with Afghanistan. Copy of original letter describing the gems of Fatima Begum, Tipu Sultan’s eldest daughter. His frenetic effort to persuade Napoleon to invade India after Egypt (1798) is well documented in the world historical archives. In his quest to Islamize the Country he recklessly changed old Hindu names of places and official designations into Islamic ones. He could not afford to pay his troops well leading to low morale; but he would not stop costly ventures like self aggrandizement and sending emissaries with lavish gifts to foreign countries all of which proved to be futile exercises. He also distinguished himself in the First … He wrote a letter to this effect to the Shah of Iran and also sent an agent, Nurullah to impress on the Shah the importance of Political & Commercial contacts. His father took the kingdom away from the righful rulers of Mysore, and Tipus didn’t give it back. No matter what evidence there is about him being a ruthless tyrant, there are always so-called intellecutals and vested interests who keep calling him great. Poovamma, Coorg Person of the Year 2015, Joshna Chinappa, Coorg Person of the Year 2014, Dr S.V. Zaman Shah was made to beat her hasty retreat to Kabul because of British machinations that brought about a rear action from Iran on Afghanistan wellesly forced the Nizam to disband Raymond accept a British detachment under subsidiary systems. Tipu Sultan: The Tyrant of Mysore. In between, not finding a timely response from France, Tipu conspired with Zaman Shah Durrani the Afghanistan King and Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid (1787) in Turkey to create an Islamic force against Maratha. He was the grandson of Ahmad Shah Durrani and the fifth son of Timur Shah Durrani.An ethnic Pashtun, Shah Zaman became the third King of Afghanistan. This is in response to the article- ‘Tipu Sultan: a secular internationalist, not a bigot’ by Muzaffar Assadi, which appeared in ‘The Hindu’ dated September 27,2015. He wanted accounts also to be maintained in Persian much to the consternation of his Hindu officials. c) Prince (Shahzada) Ahmad Halim uz-Zaman Shah Sahib. These details can be found in two autobiographies: Sultan-ut Tawarikh and Tarikh-i-Khudadadi,… This led Tipu’s trusted commander Kamaruddin to leave his services out of professional differences. WHAT IS ALL THE FUSS ABOUT COFFEE ‘OUT-TURN TEST’? In 1791, the Swami of Sringeri Math wrote to his ruler, and most generous patron, to relate a tragic tale of murder, temple destruction and violent iconoclasm. Tipu’s ambition was to become the Emperor (Badshah) of the Deccan and Islamize the whole of India inhabited by infidels and heretics (meaning non- Muslims) even at the point of sword . He was the grandson of Ahmad Shah Durrani and the fifth son of Timur Shah Durrani.An ethnic Pashtun, Shah Zaman became the third King of Afghanistan. Any reviews, great must read passages?? Notify me of follow-up comments by email. With a singular passion for expelling the British from India, he tried diplomacy and sought alliances throughout the Islamic world and the Indian subcontinent. The British even though a foreign power, were better fighters, more humane and did not discriminate people based on their religious faith like Tipu did. Tipu Sultan sought the help of Zaman Shah Durrani, the ruler Durrani Empire in Afghan, to defeat both the British and Maratha. He was regarded in his time as unquestionably the most powerful of all the native princes of Hindustan In contrast the treatment he and his followers got from the British were more civilized. In a way British rule did unite India, restored a benevolent monarchy in Mysore which made it one of the most progressive states in the country and fostered secular concepts which is a hallmark of modern India. He was the grandson of Ahmed Shah Abdali, and like him a man of great military reputation. Zaman Shah Durrani (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic: زماں شاہ درانی), (c. 1770 – 1844) was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1793 until 1800. Shah Zaman's frequent attacks on India kept the British in a chronic state of unrest. It is a well known fact that a mosque in Srirangapatna was built over the ancient Anjaneya temple there. In these letters sent through his emissaries with costly gifts, Tipu had invited King Zaman Shah of Afghanistan , Fateh Ali Khan of Persia, Caliph of Turkey and ruler of Iran to join forces and invade North India for which he had promised full cooperation. 58, No. BJP Chief Amit Shah on Thursday hit out at the Karnataka government over its move to celebrate the birth anniversary of 18th century ruler Tipu Sultan on November 10. His reasoning to invite foreigners to invade North India was that Mughals had gone weak and infidels were getting stronger. Tipu Sultan’s gem-crusted octagonal throne is called the ‘Tiger Throne’ after his title, the Tiger of Mysore, and the 10 tiger-head finials on the throne. In the late eighteenth century, the Durrani empire was the only force that could neutralize the increasing influence of the East India Company or support the waning Indian Muslim power. Muslims were given free land grants and captured women belonging to other faiths were given in marriage to Muslim men. Tipu’s efforts to secure French aid and his appeals to the Turkish Sultan, Zaman Shah of Kabul, the Peshwa, the Nizam and even to the Mughal Emperor were not entirely for defending his country. Tipu Sultan in Mysore had been checked by the British about this time. HALARNKAR, FORMER BANGALORE CITY POLICE COMMISSIONER, CONTRARIAN VIEW: NO EVIDENCE OF A ‘MASSACRE’ BY TIPU AT DEVATUPARAMBU IN COORG, BOOK TALK: MY NEXT BOOK IS ‘COORG ROLE MODELS’, KASTURIRANGAN REPORT: YEDIYURAPPA GOVT BOWS TO TIMBER LOBBY, DR SANJANA KATTERA, PART OF OXFORD COVID-19 VACCINE TEAM IS ‘COORG PERSON, 2020’, TIGER STORY: MY VISIT TO INDUSTRIALIST ANAND MAHINDRA’S HOME IN COORG, THE STORY OF PARVANGADA FAMILY AND ‘THE TIGER OF COORG’.

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