klingender content and form in art


Chernyshevski anticipated Fry in pointing out that beauty in nature is entirely distinct from the aesthetic element in art. Those capable of doing so are, he admits, but few: ‘in proportion as art becomes purer, the number of people to whom it appeals gets less’, [9] he had already told the Fabians in 1917. Art is thus a striking and at the same time a peculiarly revealing illustration of the key conception of dialectics, the unity of opposites. London, Routledge and K. Paul, 1971 In our own tradition this was true of Shelley and Constable, no less than of Fielding and Hogarth. André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. You see the sense of poetry is analogous to the things represented in painting. Montreal-based Margot Klingender’s work, for example, would be a great addition in this format. However, most typically, form is defined by a combination of these factors, as is the case in this print by Max Ernst. Stripped of its illusions, the ideal beauty depicted by art loses its power to console men for the imperfections of reality. Against this theory Chernyshevski advances the claim: ‘Reality is greater than dreams and essential significance more important than fantastic pretensions.’ Hence he seeks beauty not in any ideal sphere remote from reality and opposed to it, but in the essence of reality itself. ‘To paint a face beautifully’ is quite distinct from ‘painting a beautiful face’. Realism as Critique: Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. But from about 1870 onwards, as the pressure increased, this critical attitude was more and more replaced by assumed indifference, the artist retreated into ever remoter realms of ‘purely’ aesthetic experience, and the further he retreated, the more rapidly did the sweets he coveted turn to ashes in his mouth. THE ART OF THE WANJINA. Hence his attempt, after say 1912, to disentangle the ‘purely aesthetic’ elements from their accompanying ‘accessories’ was in fact an attempt to explain the indifference of certain artists to the problems of life and the growing isolation of art from all other spheres of existence. Francis Donald Klingender (1907 – 9 July 1955) was a Marxist art historian and exponent of Kunstsoziologie whose uncompromising views meant that he never quite fitted into the British art … André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. They differ in degree, but not in kind. The name Mikhail Lifshits (1905–83) will probably mean little to most English-speaking readers. Genre/Form: History: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Klingender, F.D. But it is easy to exaggerate the difference between these two conceptions of art. The Renard stories became one of tbe most powerful vehicles for satire in the late Middle Ages. It is scarcely necessary to point out that this profound idea is utterly incompatible with the formalism of Roger Fry. Taking as his stalking horse a Symbolist literary theory, Shklovsky outlines an opposing view of the nature of art. Located in Sydney, Tim Klingender Fine Art is an international business providing a range of services to the primary and secondary art markets. To rid himself of that ‘obsession’ was the main preoccupation of his later thought. … Realism as Critique: Leon Trotsky: from Literature and. Night Workers. “Larwill had a great eye and all the works in his collection are beautifully provenanced,” says Tim Klingender, the Sydney-based senior consultant of Australian art to Sotheby’s New York. (Francis Donald). In other words, the interval of reflection which Fry claims as the distinguishing feature of artistic perception, is just as essential in any behaviour that can be subjected to a moral test. It freed the artist from complete subservience to a false morality and enabled him to preserve something, at least, of his integrity. In terms of art, line is considered to be a moving dot. Whereas in ordinary life perception is followed by responsive action – the sight of a bull rushing towards us makes us turn to instant flight – Fry claims that artistic perception is of the kind we experience when we see the bull, not in the flesh, but on the screen of a cinema: we enjoy the emotion of fear because we need not act upon it. It was not, therefore, to the conflicts and the squalor of the real world that Tennyson returned, but to the sham idealism with which the Victorian squire and business man sought to conceal the contradictions of that world. Animals in art and thought. His major works included Art and the Industrial Revolution (1947) , Goya in the Democratic Tradition (1948) and his posthumously published Animals in Art and Thought (1971). Marxism and Modern Art: An approach to social realism by F. D. Klingender 1943. To quote Fry’s own account, the discussion stimulated by the appearance of ‘post-impressionism’ revealed ‘that some artists who were peculiarly sensitive to the formal relations of works of art... had almost no sense of the emotions’ of life which he had supposed them to convey. Tennyson became the Laureate of the Victorians because, on the surface at least, he spurned the blandishments of art for art’s sake and accepted the ‘mission’ of teaching and consoling his fellow men. But there was also another side in Tennyson’s work. The idea is sounder and more interesting than Klingender's Freudian orthodoxy allows him to admit. Art in Theory, 1900–2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas Charles Harrison , Paul J. The statement that it is the function of art to reproduce everything that interests man in life implies that the particular image created must be ‘of interest to man generally and not merely to the artist’. On the one hand the poet is tempted and passionately desires to escape into the ‘God-like isolation’ of pure art, on the other hand he realizes that isolation will lead him to despair and death. Structures and circuits begin to appear, surfacing a place for gathering and conjuring. For Klingender, they exist in a form of duality, open and closed, individual and collective. The assumption which is inherent in all idealist theories of aesthetics, including formalism, that the general is necessarily more fundamental and significant than the particular is thus a fallacy. Action implies moral responsibility. The statement ‘this is beautifully painted’ means that the artist has succeeded in expressing what he intended to convey. But it does mean that society cannot be indifferent whether a given work of art inspires by its profound insight, whether it stirs to action, whether it soothes and refreshes, or whether, on the other hand, it opiates and disrupts. Chernyshevski’s conception of ‘life’ as the content of art is thus dynamic, dialectical, it is the struggle of life, life as it is in reality and not in blissful dreams. Such works will be, as it were, composed on themes set by life.’. But, as Chernyshevski points out, ‘alcohol is not wine’. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. Nevertheless, he bases his analysis exclusively on what he takes to be the psychology of the individual, or rather of ‘man’ in the abstract. London : Paladin, 1972, ©1968 André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. Of all the critics who have helped to mould our present standards of appreciation none can equal the influence of Roger Fry, the founder of British post-impressionism. 11. What is more fundamental and hence more significant, Chernyshevski asks, Koramasin’s History of Russia or the Children’s History of Russia which a writer named Tappen abstracted from that work? Louis Aragon: from Paris Peasant 1924. Form may also be defined by change in texture, even when hue and value remain essentially consistent. But had they not been drawn for us by men of genius, our own conclusions would be even more narrow and inadequate. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the ′Great Exhibition of German Art′ 1937. Marxist art historian of British art; employed Kunstsoziologie in his writings. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the 'Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. In other words, it refers to the form and not to the content of the artist’s work. In 1909 Fry still seems to have felt this, for he was prepared to accept the idealist point of view that life, far from being the touchstone of aesthetic value, should, on the contrary, itself be judged by the standards of art: ‘It might even be’, he wrote, ‘that from this point of view we should rather justify actual life by its relation to the imaginative, justify nature by its likeness to art. Francis Klingender: ‘Content and Form in Art' 1935. Art and the Industrial Revolution. In 1920 he added: ‘true art is becoming more and more esoteric and hidden, like an heretical sect – or rather like science in the middle ages’. 11. 11. Roger Fry’s Formalism. "This pioneer investigation remains one of the most original and arresting accounts of the impact of the new industry and technology upon the landscape of England and the English mind. A genuine front-line newsreel sequence far surpasses even the best war film in dramatic power and intensity. Though greatly accentuated since the beginning of the twentieth century, this isolation of the artists was not new, and in Fry’s case, too, the tendency of divorcing art from life was already implicit in his theory of 1909. But in reproducing life, the artist also, consciously or unconsciously, expresses his opinion of it, and it is by virtue of this that ‘art becomes a moral activity of man.’. David A. Siqueiros: 'Towards a Transformation of the Plastic Arts' 1934. Science does not claim to be anything else, nor do the poets in their cursory remarks about the essence of their work. To quote his own words: ‘Art, then, is an expression and a stimulus of the imaginative life, which is separated from actual life by the absence of responsive action. (Francis Donald). Harrison and Wood, 437. David A. Siqueiros: 'Towards a Transformation of the Plastic Arts' 1934. In Art and Form Rose engages mainly with fellow authors in Nonsite, notably Todd Cronan and Patrick McCreless, noting intentionalist assumptions malgré eux, but his thesis is more strongly indebted to Michael Baxandall, Patterns of Intention: On the Historical Explanation of Pictures (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985). Roger Fry’s Formalism. ‘The usual assumption of a direct and decisive connection between life and art is by no means correct’, he told the Fabian Society in 1917, ‘if we consider this special spiritual activity of art we find it no doubt open at times to influences from life, but in the main self-contained – we find the rhythmic sequences of change determined more by its own internal forces – and by the readjustment within it of its own elements – than by external forces. For in art the particular becomes the general, the general reveals itself in the particular, and it is the unity of the particular and the general, expressed in the unity of content and form, which makes art an inexhaustible source of significant experience. It is by now a commonplace that individual and … It would be false and unconvincing precisely because of its character as a lifeless abstraction. … Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. And in so far as he communicates the image of his perception to his fellow men, the artist is morally responsible for it. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the 'Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. the tame still-lives and the harmless holiday scenes of the post-impressionists (not, it is significant to note, what was really new in English art, the war paintings of 1914-18). Realism as Critique. I therefore assume that the contemplation of form is a peculiarly important spiritual exercise...’ [3]. Her spunky sculptures look like doodles formed in 2D, which relate back to her formal training in painting and drawing. what is politics? Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. Klingender "Content and Form in Art" (437-9). If this were true, there could be no art: what else is the work of art but the creative reproduction of the artist’s perception? Indeed, moral behaviour not infrequently implies the suppression of inherited responses: to act morally, when faced by a bull, I must curb my impulse of self-preservation sufficiently to help my less agile companion. Art and Merchandise in Keith Haring’s Pop Shop ... 2020. Marxism and Modern Art: An approach to social realism by F. D. Klingender 1943. Our specialist interests are Australian Indigenous Art, Australian Art, Oceanic Art, Modern and Contemporary Art. But it is when he defines the specific manner in which art reproduces reality that Chernyshevski differs most radically from the assumptions on which Fry’s analysis, in common with all other idealist systems of aesthetics, are based. Angelo Lo Conte. The idea is sounder and more interesting than Klingender's Freudian orthodoxy allows him to admit. And it was here, where he ceased to be pontifical and gave free vent to his emotions, that Tennyson became the true mirror of an important aspect of his age. He himself later summarized its main conclusions as follows: ‘I conceived the form of a work of art to be its most essential quality, but I believed this form to be the direct outcome of an apprehension of some emotion of actual life by the artist, although, no doubt, that apprehension was of a special and peculiar kind and implied a certain detachment. Kimberley are preserved a staggering history of cultural change in the form of a complex sequence of rock art that may extend back more than 20,000 years into the Pleistocene era. Stuart Davis and Clarence Weinstock: 'Abstract Painting in America', 'Contradictions in Abstractions' and 'A Medium of 2 Dimensions' 1935. Only the aesthetes still assert that art is superior to life and to reality.’, Chernyshevski sums up by stating that it is the essential function of art ‘to reproduce everything that interests man in life’. These theories are not, however, the products of perverse reasoning – they merely reflect what has actually been happening in English art since about 1910. It’s horribly difficult to analyse out of all the complex feelings just this one peculiar feeling, but I think that in proportion as poetry becomes more intense the content is entirely remade by the form and has no separate value at all. Unable to comprehend the causes of the collapse, he was glad to escape into what now appeared to him as a ‘revolutionary advance’ in art – i.e. When Art and Technology Collide… 5 Great Books on Art and Technology selected by Choice reviewer William S. Rodner. 21 24 25 Introduction First writing assignment – what is art? Suppose that a painter, sculptor, writer or film director sets out to create a striking and significant image of, say, the soldier of the 8th Army. Art and the Industrial Revolution. Genre/Form: History: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Klingender, F.D. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the ‘Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. Andre Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. But when a person endowed with artistic gifts is intellectually stimulated by problems arising out of the observation of life, his work will consciously or unconsciously embody a tendency to pronounce some vital judgment on the phenomena which occupy his mind (and that of his contemporaries, for a thinking man hardly concerns himself with trifling matters of no interest to anyone but himself). Grant Wood: from Revolt Against the City 1935. Beauty as the unity of idea and image, or as the perfect realization of an idea, is the aim of art in the widest possible sense of the term, the aim of all skill; it is, in fact, the aim of all practical activities of man.’. listeners cannot directly identify. Art and the Industrial Revolution. In adopting this method of analysis Fry necessarily assumes that a given factor will have aesthetic significance in proportion as it is generalized, lacking in individuality, and constant. Dec. 31st, 2020. Within the rock shelters and caves of the northern and central areas of the . Realism as Critique: Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. … to form divorced and abstracted from that which it forms, Fry excluded everything which art was ever intended to convey to mankind. 1935. Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. ‘In real life all happenings are true and correct, there are no oversights, none of that one-sided narrowness of vision which attaches to all human works. Francis Klingender: ‘Content and Form in Art' 1935. Artistic contemplation, being removed from action, is thereby released from all moral ties. Consequently, when Fry restated his theory in 1920 (essay ‘Retrospect’ in Vision and Design), he discarded the emotions of life and confined aesthetic feeling to what Clive Bell had meanwhile called ‘significant form’. Revolving Blades and Wheels from Olavs Magnus, History of the Northern Peoples, 1555 1 . ‘The beautiful’, says Chernyshevski, ‘is an individual, live object and not an abstract thought’. Structures and circuits begin to appear, surfacing a place for gathering and conjuring. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the 'Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. Realism: Chernyshevski. Revised and extended edition, edited and revised by Arthur Elton. Both imply an ideal realm of ‘beauty’ or ‘pure form’ which is superior to the ordinary life of men. I also admit that under certain conditions the rhythms of life and of art may coincide with great effect on both; but in the main the two rhythms are distinct, and as often as not play against each other. Francis Klingender, Evelyn Antal, John P Harthan. 11. In Animals in Art and Thought Francis Klingender discusses these various attitudes in a survey which ranges from prehistoric cave art to the later Middle Ages. (source: Nielsen Book Data) Summary He even compared them favourably with those of the thirteenth century, although he regarded the latter period as more artistic. Morality appreciates emotion by the standard of resultant action, art appreciates emotion in and for itself.’ [4]. It is by now a commonplace that individual and … Marxism and Modern Art: An approach to social realism by F. D. Klingender 1943. The quality which is most striking in The Palace of Art is its ambiguity. Chernyshevski’s conception, on the other hand, anticipates the theories of William Morris and of all modern exponents of ‘functional’ design. The objects become entry points to knowledge and imagining, creating an in-between space to slip in and out of, with the objects acting as a sort of portal. On the one hand the poet is tempted and passionately desires to escape into the ‘God-like isolation’ of pure art, [16] on the other hand he realizes that isolation will lead him to despair and death. André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. But who would claim that science does not lead to responsive action or that it is ‘freed from the binding necessities of our actual existence’? To achieve this he should study the actual soldiers of the 8th Army at their daily work; he should observe just how the various qualities which have made that Army what it is are reflected in the behaviour and bearing of particular individuals, how they modify and are in turn modified by the idiosyncrasies of those individuals; and the more faithfully he succeeds in recreating particular, living characters with all their idiosyncrasies – say the London busman who is now driving a tank or the Australian gunner – the more real and therefore also the more typical and universally significant his image will be felt to be. Form may also be defined by change in texture, even when hue and value remain essentially consistent. ‘Everything that interests man in life’ includes the ugly, as well as the beautiful, the forces that frustrate and crush life, as well as those that support it, death as well as life. Although by 1909 Fry had already abandoned the ‘idea of likeness to Nature, of correctness or incorrectness as a test’ – he had just discovered Cézanne – he was, as he himself says, ‘still obsessed by ideas about the content of a work of art’, for he still felt that the ‘aesthetic whole’ somehow reflected ‘the emotions of life’. But life does not trouble to explain its phenomena to us nor to draw conclusions as men do in the works of science and art. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the ‘Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. Nor can we derive much help from the conception of art which the Victorians admired in Tennyson: It is the artist’s mission to console his fellow men, ‘even as the calm, gentle, self-reliant physician inspires the fevered sufferer’ by ‘throwing a divine grace over the happier emotions’; he should ‘transport them from the cankering cares of daily life, the perplexities and confusion of their philosophies, the weariness of their haunting thoughts, to some entirely new field of existence, to some place of rest, some “clear walled city by the sea” where they can draw a serene air undimmed by the clouds and smoke which infest their ordinary existence.’ [17] We may agree with the formalists that the artist who makes his work an opium for the people is a traitor to his calling. 11. The first systematic account of Fry’s attitude to these questions is the important ‘Essay in Aesthetics’ of 1909. Both agree that the real world in its rich and concrete actuality has no aesthetic significance. Far from being more significant, the general can only be a pale reflection of the particular, an insubstantial shadow of its rich and vital individuality. This mythical element is progressively destroyed by the advance of science which, consequently, results in a decline of art. The significance of muralism in the United States has received considerable attention in art historical treatments of the period.5 The modernisation and revitalisation of American wall painting was the result of a number of cultural factors, perhaps most importantly the establishment from 1933 of federal funding for public art under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal administration.6 Scant mention can be found of the influence of the American example for artists in England, yet renewed interest in muralis… Klingender & Alsop dissolved their partnership in 1920 as a result of Alsop’s ill health, and Klingender formed a new partnership with R B Hamilton. 11. I admit that there is also a queer hybrid art of sense and illustration, but it can only arouse particular and definitely conditioned emotions, whereas the emotions of music and pure painting and poetry when it approaches purity are really free abstract and universal.’ [2]. 11. But whereas the Victorians tolerated a realistic attitude to Nature and society only if it was overlayed with sentimentality, as in Dickens or in the later work of George Cruikshank, the tradition of uncompromising realism continued to advance in nineteenth-century France and Russia. See F. D. Klingender, ‘Content and Form in Art’ in Herbert Read, F. D. Klingender, Eric Gill, A. L. Lloyd, Alick West, 5 on Revolutionary Art ... 1992), pp. His final views are expressed in a letter which he wrote in 1924 to the Poet Laureate Robert Bridges: ‘I very early became convinced that our emotions before works of art were of many kinds and that we failed as a rule to distinguish the nature of the mixture and I set to work by introspection to discover what the different elements of these compound emotions might be and to try to get at the most constant, unchanging, and therefore I suppose fundamental emotion. Hence it would seem that to obtain an inspiring and significant image the artist should endeavour to create an authentic, documentary image of the living reality before him. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art… Of all the critics who have helped to mould our present standards of appreciation none can equal the influence of Roger Fry, the founder of British post-impressionism. I admit, of course, that it is always conditioned more or less by economic changes, but these are rather conditions of its existence at all than directive influences. To Fry, as to most other intellectuals of his generation, the first world war came as a shattering bolt from the blue. According to this, the purpose of art is 'de-familiarization'. Superior to the things represented in painting and drawing convey to mankind these questions is the important ‘ in. Means that the contemplation of form apart from its purpose and divorced the. Stripped of its relation to reality and form in Art ' 1937 version: Klingender,.! Nature of Art is 'de-familiarization ': Online version: Klingender, Evelyn Antal, John P Harthan Keith ’! His integrity purpose of Art, the purpose of Art is its ambiguity inherited. More narrow and inadequate a given idea points out, ‘ alcohol is not ’! Nothing whatever to do with morals beautiful to man is that which he accepts as the realisation. 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