differences in health outcomes between groups


There is often the requirement to evaluate descriptive statistics for data within the organization or for health care information. Examples will be reviewed below. A meta-analysis of 29 studies from 10 Asian countries found that lower socioeconomic status as measured by income, education, and occupation was related to higher overall mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cancer (Vathesatogkit, Batty, & Woodward, 2014). Although these particular meta-analyses suggest that disadvantaged groups may suffer from worse mental health, it should be noted that on the whole Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks have a lower risk for mental illness than non-Hispanic Whites (Breslau et al., 2006; Mezuk et al., 2013), although their access to mental health care may be worse (McGuire & Miranda, 2008). Simply put, poorer, less educated populations are less healthy than more affluent, educated populations. Danaei et al. Inequalities exist across a range of dimensions, such as socio-economic deprivation and personal characteristics like age and sex. Health inequities are differences in health status or in the distribution of health resources between different population groups, arising from the social conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. Health equity means social justice in health (i.e., no one is denied the possibility to be healthy for belonging to a group that has historically been economically/socially disadvantaged). A health disparity/inequality is a particular type of difference in health or in the most important influences on health that could potentially be shaped by policies; it is a difference in which disadvantaged social groups (such as the poor, racial/ethnic minorities, women, or other groups that have persistently experienced social disadvantage or discrimination) systematically experience worse … RWJF focus areas are child and family well-being, health coverage, health leadership and workforce, health system improvement, healthy weight, and health communities. Their objectives are “to develop and test multilevel interventions to reduce health disparities, to use community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles, to train a new generation of transdisciplinary researchers in collaborative team science, and to promote translation and broad dissemination of evidence-based strategies into practice and policy” (Cooper et al., 2015, p. S374). The contributors are expert in diverse fields including public health, epidemiology, medicine and nursing, anthropology, sociology, population research, immigration law, and ethics. An analysis of survival outcomes of patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer found that Asian patients fared consistently better than Caucasian patients in terms of overall survival rates, as well as across a number of indices of response to chemotherapy (Soo et al., 2011). Efforts to reduce health disparities are extensive and involve government and foundation efforts and research-driven interventions. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. (2008), who studied differences in cancer coverage in newspapers targeted to Black audiences and newspapers meant for a general audience. Interventions that enhanced access to mammography services had the largest effect; tailored interventions had a larger effect than non-tailored interventions; ethnically matched interventions and culturally matched intervention materials also had positive effects. Definition of Health Inequalities Health inequalities are unfair and avoidable differences in health across the population, and between different groups within society. The inverse relationship between deprivation and health outcomes though well established as shown above (Table 2 and recently in Newton JN et al 2015) is also slightly more complex as shown below. Fourth, there is potential in digital media to disseminate information about health disparities. Health literacy is defined as “the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions” (USDHHS, 2012). Highest blood sugar levels were apparent in Western Native American men and younger women and older Southern rural Black women. In the United States, there are federal agencies tasked with the goal of reducing health disparities. Future directions for research are suggested, and recommendations for interventions to improve health disparities offered by the Principal Investigators of the 10 Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities are presented. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2011) presents a concise definition: “Health disparities are differences in health outcomes between groups that reflect social inequalities” (p. 1). Asians consistently had the lowest body fat (as measured by body mass index), blood sugar levels, and smoking rates. Methodological advances in identifying, defining, and measuring health disparities are needed to enhance the quality of our research. Freimuth and Quinn (2004) discussed how health communication researchers have expertise in mass media campaigns, entertainment-education programs, media advocacy efforts, new technology initiatives, and interpersonal level interventions such as patient-provider communication training, all of which can be brought to bear on the development, testing, and implementation of strategies to reduce disparities. In terms of policy, requiring seatbelt use, restricting smoking areas, and increasing tax on alcoholic beverages all can have a positive impact on health. A study investigating socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries found that mortality rates were higher and self-assessments of health were lower for groups with lower socioeconomic status (Mackenbach et al., 2008). Third, there are several different strategies for communicating about health disparities (comparing different social groups, emphasizing specific groups, framing the causes of disparities, using narratives) and each has, not surprisingly, different outcomes. Although there is the possibility that attempts to reduce disparities may actually exacerbate them if interventions are not disseminated and implemented equitably (Koh et al., 2010; Viswanath & Kreuter, 2007), as Perloff (2006, p. 757) observed, bridging the literatures in health communication and health disparities promises to offer “new ideas, syntheses, and applications that may improve the quality of health care.”. In the extensive literature on socioeconomic health disparities, less attention has been paid to examining the variability in health outcomes within social or economic groups. Health outcomes included self-reported health status, cancer-related outcomes, medication adherence and management, disease control, preventive care, and end-of-life decisions. The policy provides guidance to countries on how to develop national health policies and adopt strategies to reduce health disparities within and across their borders. Second, the way the issue of health disparities is depicted in the media may have impact on public support for initiatives to reduce health disparities. Some researchers separate definitions of health inequality from health disparity by preventability. The report found disparities “between race and ethnic groups across all of the health topics examined” (CDC, 2013, p. 184). Determinants of health can be categorized along a number of dimensions, but common designations consider behavioral, social, and environmental factors that lead to health disparities, as well as differences in access to health care and health services. ‘Health inequalities’ refers to differences in health outcomes between groups, for example a higher rate of lung cancer incidence in more deprived areas compared with less deprived areas. Buckner-Brown et al. (State- and local-level agencies have similar charges, but a review of these is beyond the scope of this essay.) Infectious disease is of great concern worldwide. Fair Society, Healthy Lives. All racial and ethnic groups experienced improvements in health coverage, access, and utilization compared to prior to the ACA (Figure 1). Findings were not very revealing and seemed to be limited by individual study-level methodological issues, such as choice of health literacy measure and inadequately described health disparity outcome. Its mission statement is simply put: “to improve the health and health care of all Americans” (RWJF, n.d.). As might be expected, there are health disparities in both cases. Physical determinants implicate the built environment, which can either facilitate or impede health promotion, and environmental hazards, such as poor air or water quality. Nam, Janson, Stotts, Chesla, and Kroon (2012) conducted a meta-analysis of 12 studies investigating the impact of culturally tailored diabetes education for ethnic minorities. She offered the following caution to anyone concerned with alleviating health disparities: We do a disservice to the weight of evidence, past and present, on social inequalities in health if we suggest that what chiefly hampers efforts to promote social equity in health is a lack of knowledge, whether of the social patterning of health, or trends, or pathways. Although individuals from different environmental, continental, socioeconomic, and racial groups etc. A child born in Sierra Leone can expect to live for 50 years while a child born in Japan can expect to live 84 years. Additional examples of health disparities between groups by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, sex, and other factors will become apparent in the section on morbidity and mortality that follows. In low-resource settings, health-care costs for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) can quickly drain household resources, driving families into poverty. People with low health literacy may not understand information they receive from their health care providers or from media sources, so the question of whether or not health literacy is related to health disparities is of interest. Over the last decades, due to high rates of immigration, many high-income countries have witnessed demographic shifts towards more cultural diversity in the population. Differences in rates of avoidable mortality between population groups reflect differences in people getting the help that they need to address life-threatening health risks and illnesses. Future research and practice in health disparities is ripe with opportunity. These health inequalities, differences in health between people or groups of people that may be considered unfair, reflect historic and present-day social inequalities in our population. In recent years, interest in health literacy has burgeoned. Examples include reductions in cardiovascular disease and cancer in disadvantaged groups in England and reductions in maternal and child deaths in Ecuador. A meta-analysis of 20 studies of pediatric food allergy prevalence in the United States found that although prevalence of food allergy has increased overall, increases were greater among non-Hispanic Black children (Keet et al., 2014). They are 14 times more likely to die before the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa than the rest of the world. Central to all of these definitions is the idea that health disparities stem from disadvantage and, as such, they are unnecessary and avoidable and, therefore, unjust and unfair (Whitehead, 1992). Implications for mental health practitioners and ongoing research are discussed. A systematic review and meta-analysis, http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/mars-vs-venus-the-gender-gap-in-health, http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health-measures/Determinants-of-Health, Temporal trends and racial/ethnic disparity in self-reported pediatric food allergy in the United States, Translating research evidence into practice to reduce health disparities: A social determinants approach, Contribution of communication inequalities to disparities in human papillomavirus vaccine awareness and knowledge, Psychological morbidity and quality of life of ethnic minority patients with cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis, The relationship between health literacy and health disparities: A systematic review, “White Box” epidemiology and the social neuroscience of health behaviors: The Environmental affordances model, Recruitment and retention for community-based eHealth interventions with populations of low socioeconomic position: Strategies and challenges, Female gender is an independent prognostic factor in non-small-cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis, Effect of culturally tailored diabetes education in ethnic minorities with type 2 diabetes, Communication about health disparities in the mass media, http://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealth/OMHHE.html, Introduction: Communication and health care disparities, http://www.rwjf.org/en/library/annual-reports/presidents-message-2014.html, http://www.equinetafrica.org/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/ROCequity.pdf, Rethinking the vulnerability of minority populations in research, Socioeconomic inequality and caries: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Socioeconomic differences in lung cancer incidence: A systematic review and meta-analysis, http://www.health.gov/communication/literacy/, Socioeconomic disadvantage and disease-specific mortality in Asia: Systematic review with meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies, Health disparities, communication inequalities, and ehealth, Cancer information disparities between U.S.- and foreign-born populations, The ACT2 Program and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in HIV and AIDS Clinical Trials: A Case Study in Health and Risk Messaging, Neighborhood Considerations for Social Determinants of Health and Risk, Culture, a Social Determinant of Health and Risk: Considerations for Health and Risk Messaging, Statistical Evidence in Health and Risk Messaging, Government-Driven Incentives to Improve Health, Public Health and Community Organizing as Agents for Change in Health and Risk Messaging, Ethical Issues and Considerations in Health and Risk Message Design, Communications Research in Using Genomics for Health Promotion. In the United States, for example, a study investigating differences in mortality between 1960 and 1986 found disparities in death rates between low and high socioeconomic status groups; although the overall death rate fell over the two and a half decades in question, the disparities due to income and education actually increased (Pappas, Queen, Hadden, & Fisher, 1993). Explain what challenges disparate populations face in your state. This report issued by the Institute of Medicine documents the extent of U.S. health disparities and the factors that contribute to them; it also recommends strategies to reduce health disparities. When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Media influences involve the effects of access or exposure to different kinds of health information on the health behavior and health outcomes of different groups, as well as the effects of health disparity media coverage on public support for initiatives to reduce health disparities. These inequities have significant social and economic costs both to individuals and societies. (2010) studied the impact of four preventable risk factors (smoking, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and body fat) on life expectancy across eight subgroups in the United States known as the “eight Americas” (Asians, below-median-income Whites living in the Northland, middle America, poor Whites living in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley, Native Americans living on reservations in the West, Black middle-America, poor Blacks living in the rural South, and Blacks living in high-risk urban environments). Two studies that focused on non-small cell lung cancer provide clear examples. Results of their meta-analysis found that in the least urban countries, higher levels of education were associated with higher levels of body mass index but in the most urban countries, higher levels of education were associated with lower levels of body mass index. Children from the poorest 20% of households are nearly twice as likely to die before their fifth birthday as children in the richest 20%. With this promise in place, this section provides a brief review of some of the government and foundation level efforts, as well as research-driven interventions, designed to ameliorate health disparities. Ethnic inequalities in health have been well documented in the UK. Prioritize community engagement and equitably shared community and researcher power to maximize intervention success and sustainability. Comparing Hispanics only, Zhao found that foreign-born respondents were less likely to seek information for themselves and less likely to trust information from their doctor or the Internet; most of the differences found for the groups on the whole also held for the Hispanic subgroups. Among women, most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. A meta-analysis of rheumatic heart disease that involved 37 populations found a relationship between level of social inequality and prevalence of the disease; prevalence increased with age, but there were no differences by sex (Rothenbühler et al., 2014). Health disparities can be considered along several fronts, including populations of interest; incidence and prevalence of morbidity and mortality; determinants of health; health literacy and health information seeking; media influences on health disparities; and efforts to reduce health disparities, including government/foundation efforts and research-driven interventions. The causal effects of policies and programs related to vaccines, vehicle safety, toxic substances, pollution, legal and illegal drugs, and health behaviors are difficult to measure. In doing so, communication researchers must keep communication theory in mind and focus on those etiological factors that would respond to a communication intervention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention house an Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE). As described in this chapter, there are also differences in outcomes relating to socioeconomic status, ethnicity, geographical region and other social factors. Socioeconomic status, as defined by income and education, may be the most important factor underlying health disparities. Broadly speaking, health disparities are differences in health outcomes between socially disadvantaged and advantaged groups. (2011) reviewed a sample of CDC’s Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health programs (CDC, 2012) and identified an array of promising programs designed to address a host of disparities, including asthma, cancer, diabetes, and hepatitis. It seems to have taken until the turn of the century before academic health researchers began paying serious attention to issues of health disparities. They die of pneumonia, malaria, diarrhoea and other diseases. Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-2019), Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-19) ». This report investigates health disparities in the United Kingdom related to socioeconomic status, ethnic status, and sex; it also makes recommendations to address the social determinants of health underlying the disparities. The following books and special journal issues address the topic of health disparities: The following reports should be of interest to anyone interested in health disparities: Report of the Secretary’s Task Force on Black & Minority Health (The Heckler Report). Harrington (2013) also highlighted the importance of the work of communication scholars in these efforts: Communication scholars have a clear role to play in many of the efforts to reduce health disparities. Krieger argued, however, that such relationships had been revealed long ago, citing studies by Louis René Villérmé in 1826 and Friedrich Engels in 1844 that linked mortality to poverty. 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