Bioresour Technol 152:241–246, Abomohra AEF, Jin W, El-Sheekh M (2016) Enhancement of lipid extraction for improved biodiesel recovery from the biodiesel promising microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. 686 135 SN Applied Sciences Additionally, this major fatty acid profile corroborates most studies evaluating Scenedemus obliquus [30,31,32,33]. Changes in light quantity not only affect photosynthesis and the growth rate of the microorganism but also influence the activity of cellular metabolism and chemical composition of the biomass. 0000050462 00000 n Eduardo Jacob-Lopes. Correspondence to or through portable, like floor lamps. CN is a prime indicator of fuel quality related to the ignition quality of a fuel in a diesel engine. Improving Lighting Controls; Lighting can be controlled with the use of various sensors to allow the operation of lamps whenever they are needed. This high-viscosity affects the atomization of a fuel on injection into the combustion chamber and, thereby, ultimately the formation of engine deposits. Finally, in terms of the fatty acid profile of short photoperiods, the lipid fraction of biomass indicated that this lipid profile was completely different from the other light conditions tested. Fatty acid composition was determined by using a VARIAN 3400CX gas chromatograph (Varian, Palo Alto, CA, USA. PCA is a powerful statistical tool to analyze the interrelationships among a large number of variables and to explain these variables in a reduced number of information (principal components). 0000021897 00000 n Google Scholar, Su F, Li G, Fan Y, Yan Y (2016) Enhanced performance of lipase via microcapsulation and its application in biodiesel preparation. Proc Nat Acad Sci 116(15):7192–7197. On the other hand, the light cycle of 12:12 h was the condition with the highest fraction of SFA (80.5%), followed by MUFA (18.8%). The light energy can be provided by the sunlight, which is the most cost-effective energy source for microalgal production. The results shown in Table 5 indicated that the energy required to supply the artificial lighting of the photobioreactor was lower than that produced in all light conditions, except for the photoperiod of 12:12 h (light: dark) that presented a positive NEB and a NER of 0. The use of artificial lighting is crucial in agriculture and gardening, particularly in indoor cultivation. 0000113459 00000 n New lamp technologies like induction, sulfur, and light emitting diode (LED) will approach the thermal efficacy of a good daylighting system. The best results are evidenced at 0.91:0.09 s (light: dark), with biomass productivity of 67.9 mg/L h. Moreover, the photoperiods of 0.91:0.09, 0.83.0.17, and 0.75:0.25 s (light: dark) presented results of biomass productivity superior to the culture with constant illumination. � C�6���D�#�B��V3����t0�Ʉ�A���\�L%�0M�w�c���bB�z�+�U�/��V�5�2�1�p. Conversely, Table 4 showed that all conditions tested were lower than that of international standards established for kinematic viscosity. !����kzf�q1��fcb�d�`\��# ,)". Given these aspects, to competitively produce this biofuel, it is crucial to reduce the raw material costs of production. 0000164010 00000 n startxref 0000007790 00000 n Different light conditions have shown a significant effect on the fatty acid profile and, as a result, biodiesel properties were also affected. 2012).Here, we focus on street lighting because of its universal use and potential for ecological impacts (Gaston et al. Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900, Brazil, Mariana Manzoni Maroneze, Mariany Costa Deprá, Leila Queiroz Zepka & Eduardo Jacob-Lopes, You can also search for this author in Artiﬁcial lighting systems have been used extensively in commercial greenhouses until the 1980s . 0000141524 00000 n 0000002996 00000 n 0000006227 00000 n 0000172785 00000 n It was also observed that the photoperiod of 24 times per day had biomass productivity 35.8% higher than experiments with constant illumination. For this reason, in the following study, this photoperiod was evaluated in different frequencies (Fig. Finally, the use of photoperiods also proved to be an effective strategy to improve the energy balance and reduce the environmental impact of the microalgae biodiesel production process. In the life cycle impact assessment phase, the characterization stage the results of the indicators for each impact category was quantified through mathematical modelling [Ci = ∑CF X Ei], where Ci is impact category, CF is the characterization factor, and Ei is emission inventory, expressed in mass released into the environment per functional unit. ISO 14040:2006(E) Environmental management – life cycle assessment – principles and framework, Xue C, Goh QY, Tan W, Hossain I, Chen WN, Lau R (2011) Lumostatic strategy for microalgae cultivation utilizing image analysis and chlorophyll a content as design parameters. Thermostats controlled the temperature. 0000028976 00000 n users. This can be associated with the photoinhibition phenomenon, where, when the cells are exposed to continuous illumination, there may be an excess of light energy. 0000039721 00000 n In order to reap all of the benefits and healing power of natural light in office spaces, you need to have a clear vision and trusted guidance. The results showed that Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC05 can store sufficient energy to sustain cell growth for continuous periods of up to 2 h in the dark, without affecting the productivities of the process. Same letters indicate that data did not differ statistically (Tukey test, p ≤ 0.05). 0000008218 00000 n The incubation conditions used were 30 °C, the photon flux density of 30 µmol m−2 s−1 and a photoperiod of 12 h. Measurements were carried out in a bubble column photobioreactor (Tecnal, Piracicaba-SP, Brazil). In this set of data, there were no pronounced differences in lighting conditions. Axenic cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC05 were obtained from the Canadian Phycological Culture Centre. Blending has been extensively used and is considered a good and feasible method to improve the biodiesel quality [30, 37–39]. 0000005867 00000 n The maximum cell productivity (47.02 mg/L) was found in the photoperiod of 24:00 h (light: dark), followed by 22:02 h, which has biomass productivity of 42.66 mg/L h. Nevertheless, in these two conditions, no significant difference (Tukey’s test p < 0.05) was observed. Additionally lighting should reflect indirectly into the eyes from large surfaces, such as walls and ceilings. et al. PCA of fatty acid profile and fuel properties (a), under different light conditions (b). Bioresour Technol 219:493–499, Queiroz MI, Hornes MO, Silva-Manetti AG, Jacob-Lopes E (2011) Single-cell oil production by cyanobacterium Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli cultivated heterotrophically in fish processing wastewater.
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