xhosa language black panther


For the movie Black Panther, the actors learned isiXhosa, which was their remake of Xhosa. James tries to learn Xhosa in Cape Town, and hears why its important for people there. They refer to themselves as the amaXhosa and their language as Xhosa. [12][13], Xhosa is the most widely distributed African language in South Africa, though the most widely spoken African language is Zulu. The onset cluster /kl/ from phonologized loanwords such as, The unwritten glottal stop is present in words like, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 14:01. 2002. [15] Also, a small community of Xhosa speakers (18,000) live in Quthing District, Lesotho. There are moments and words that are dropped all over the place to locate that these people’s indigenous language is not English. It is a Methodist hymn written in Xhosa by Enoch Sontonga in 1897. The language of instruction at universities in South Africa is English or Afrikaans, and Xhosa is taught as a subject, both for native and for non-native speakers. "Language in South Africa: the role of language in national transformation, reconstruction and development.". Xhosa /ˈkɔːsə, ˈkoʊsə/[5][6][7] (Xhosa: [ᵏǁʰɔsa]),[missing tone] also isiXhosa, is a Nguni Bantu language and one of the official languages of South Africa and Zimbabwe. The first Bible translation was in 1859, produced in part by Henry Hare Dugmore. BBC Correspondent Pumza Fihlani who is a native speaker of Xhosa, very graciously offered a quick tutorial of useful phrases that may come in handy should one find themselves in Wakanda. Besides pulmonic egressive sounds, which are found in all spoken languages, it has a series of ejective stops and one implosive stop. [16] In the modern period, it has also borrowed, slightly, from both Afrikaans and English. I guess you could say that it just clicked in as a natural fit. Maho (2009) lists Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomvana, Gaika (Ngqika), Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe, and Hlubi.[4]. The prenasalized versions have a very short voicing at the onset which then releases in an ejective, like the prenasalized affricates, while the phonemically nasal clicks have a very long voicing through the consonant. No change when the following consonant is itself a nasal. Hlubi is the dialect in the former Ciskei; there is the more distinct Hlubi language further north, where Xhosa meets SeSotho. The murmured clicks, plosives and affricates are only partially voiced, with the following vowel murmured for some speakers. Fricatives become affricates. Constructed language (conglang) is a consciously created language that resembles human or human-like conversation. [16], Called isiXhosa sengingqi ('local Xhosa'), Xhosa has several dialects. Like, almost identical,” Coogler described. Only phonemic, and thus reflected orthographically, for. John Kani, the … Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika is part of the national anthem of South Africa, national anthem of Tanzania and Zambia, and the former anthem of Zimbabwe and Namibia. This language however was difficult for the actors to learn. They are truly voiced only after nasals, but the oral occlusion is then very short in stops, and it usually does not occur at all in clicks. Human translations with examples: mnyama, umbala, ingcuka, iibhloko, ndiyoyika, clonetype, ecaleni kwe. RELATED: Black Panther's Suit Got Serious Upgrades After Civil War Thanks to Black Widow "The language we used for Wakandan is called Xhosa. [22] The Bantu ancestor of Xhosa did not have clicks, which attests to a strong historical contact with a San language that did. Various parts of speech that qualify a noun must agree with the noun according to its gender. Approximately 19 million people in the world speak Xhosa, and it’s recognized as one of the 11 official languages of South Africa, and one of the 16 languages of Zimbabwe. Prenasalisation occurs in several contexts, including on roots with the class 9 prefix /iN-/, for example on an adjective which is feature-matching its noun: /iN- + ɬɛ/ → [intɬɛ] "beautiful" (of a class 9 word like inja "dog"). The orthographic b in mb is the voiced plosive [mb]. Additional phonemes are using sequences of multiple letters. Unlike majority of the Black Panther cast. During the trip, Coogler befriended a hotel employee, who invited Coogler to his hometown of Gugulethu, which was full of Xhosa speakers. It’s one of the way the much anticipated Black Panther … The breathy voiced glottal fricative [ɦ] is sometimes spelled h. The ejectives tend to be ejective only in careful pronunciation or in salient positions and, even then, only for some speakers. Another reason the Black Panther team decided on using Xhosa as Wakanda's official language has to do with one of the movie's central actors. The South African Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts in Xhosa on both radio (on Umhlobo Wenene FM) and television, and films, plays and music are also produced in the language. Yes, Africa has its problems but what Black Panther seems to showcase so well is the spirit of African people. When consonants are prenasalised, their pronunciation and spelling may change. Others call constructed language as invented, planned or artificial language. The Xhosa noun consists of two essential parts, the prefix and the stem. 2 is- and iz- replace isi- and izi- respectively before stems beginning with a vowel, e.g. Agreements usually reflect part of the original class with which the word agrees. In those same interviews, he also shared how Black Panther was extra special for him, because of the fact that Xhosa was part of it: “And it was extra special for … John Kani, the actor who plays T’Challa’s father in the movie, speaks the language and taught it to Chadwick. The best-known performer of Xhosa songs outside South Africa was Miriam Makeba, whose Click Song #1 (Xhosa Qongqothwane) and "Click Song #2" (Baxabene Ooxam) are known for their large number of click sounds. The word order is subject–verb–object, like in English. The influence came from John Kani, the actor who plays Black Panther’s father. It has 18 click consonants (in comparison, Juǀ'hoan, spoken in Botswana and Namibia, has 48, and Taa, with roughly 4,000 speakers in Botswana, has 83). That’s because the language of Wakanda, is largely Xhosa. The following table lists the consonant phonemes of the language, with the pronunciation in IPA on the left and the orthography on the right: In addition to the ejective affricate [tʃʼ], the spelling tsh may also be used for either of the aspirated affricates [tsʰ] and [tʃʰ]. It takes a lot more than what happened to us to take that out of us.’”. The various parts of the sentence must agree in both class and number.[12]. Surprisingly, John Kani, the actor who played T’Chaka, is a speaker of Xhosa. A conglang has vocabulary, grammar and phonology that are the same as a natural language. Moreover, Xhosa does not generally tolerate sequences of a labial consonant plus /w/. Still, it was a process during shooting, where last-minute edits to the script would have the actors unlearning what they just learned. Now, in the wake of “Black Panther,” the language is having a moment. Kani believed having them speak an African language to one another instead of English was more authentic and there you go. (eds), These are analogous to the slack-voice nasals, "Xhosa alphabet, pronunciation and language", "isiNdebele for beginners. Whenever /w/ follows a labial consonant, it changes to /j/, which then triggers palatalisation of the consonant. When aspirated clicks (ch, xh, qh) are prenasalised, the silent letter k is added (nkc, nkx, nkq) to prevent confusion with the nasal clicks nc, nx, nq, and are actually distinct sounds. Marvel’s Black Panther is a bonafide cultural phenomenon, with a current worldwide gross of over $700 million in just two weeks. All about Xhosa, the real language that Wakandans speak in 'Black Panther.'. Contextual translation of "black panther" into Xhosa. There was a scene where Tchaka and Tchalla talk in private. Aspirated clicks become prenasalized ejected clicks. Even the foundation of Nobel Peace Prize-winner and anti-apartheid activist Desmond Tutu, who rarely makes public statements these days at the age of 86, pointed out this week on Twitter: “Archbishop Tutu comes from a #Xhosa background as well.” Despite Wakanda being an isolated country hundreds of miles away from Coogler’s native Oakland, Wakanda is still a place where sisters can prank their big brothers. As of 2003[update] approximately 5.3 million Xhosa-speakers, the majority, live in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape (approximately 2 million), Gauteng (671,045), the Free State (246,192), KwaZulu-Natal (219,826), North West (214,461), Mpumalanga (46,553), the Northern Cape (51,228), and Limpopo (14,225). Xhosa culture shines on Black Panther movie premiere By XhosaCulture on February 7, 2018 Social media has been on cloud nine following the much-anticipated premiere of Hollywood’s 2018 Marvel superhero film “Black Panther” in late January 2018. [23], Proportion of the South African population that speaks Xhosa at home, Webb, Vic. It has perhaps the heaviest functional load of click consonants in a Bantu language (approximately tied with Yeyi), with one count finding that 10% of basic vocabulary items contained a click.[10]. “There were a couple of days where our cast gave us the side eye,” executive producer Nate Moore told the New York Times. The first was actor John Kani, who played T’Chaka in Captain America: Civil War and reprised the role in Black Panther. “Ryan and I went back-and-forth and talked about it, and I said it just makes sense,” said Beth McGuire, the dialect coach of Black Panther, in an interview with Slate. Director Ryan Coogler was inspired to use Xhosa for two reasons. Literary works, including prose and poetry, are available in Xhosa, as are newspapers and magazines. AmaXhosa migrated to the east coast of Africa and came across Khoisan-speaking people; "as a result of this contact, the Xhosa people borrowed some Khoisan words along with their pronunciation, for instance, the click sounds of the Khoisan languages". Coogler was further inspired when he took a personal trip to South Africa prior to shooting Black Panther, where he befriended local people who spoke Xhosa. Noun (1) a large spotted feline of tropical America similar to the leopard; in some classifications considered a member of the genus Felis (2) a leopard in the black color phase (3) large American feline resembling a lion. “If that’s who you started with, that’s your king of Wakanda, that’s who it is, that’s the language.”. At least 19 million people, in South Africa and combined with other countries, speak Xhosa. (They may also be voiced between vowels in some speaking styles.) As in other Bantu languages, nouns in Xhosa are classified into morphological classes, or genders (15 in Xhosa), with different prefixes for both singular and plural. In Clem et al. Bennie, along with John Ross (another missionary), set up a printing press in the Tyhume Valley and the first printed works in Xhosa came out in 1823 from the Lovedale Press in the Alice region of the Eastern Cape. A language that involves clicking noises. About XhosaCulture.co.za; Xhosa People; History. “They got lines that morning.”. 4 Before monosyllabic stems in some words. At present, Xhosa is used as the main language of instruction in many primary schools and some secondary schools, but is largely replaced by English after the early primary grades, even in schools mainly serving Xhosa-speaking communities. In keeping with many other Southern Bantu languages, Xhosa is an agglutinative language, with an array of prefixes and suffixes that are attached to root words. The language is also studied as a subject. The current national anthem of South Africa, starts with the first two lines in Xhosa, with the next two lines translated into Zulu but almost identical to the Xhosa version. Similarly, the tenuis (plain) clicks are often glottalised, with a long voice onset time, but that is uncommon. Tone, stress and vowel length are not indicated. “I found out that his tribe – he was Xhosa – the rituals they do are very similar to things I do with my family. That connection between Africans and the African diaspora enocuraged Coogler in his portrayal of Wakanda in Black Panther. The verb is modified by affixes to mark subject, object, tense, aspect and mood. Xhosa is a tonal Nguni Bantu language, part of the Niger-Congo language family, that uses Latin for its alphabet, and has a signed form of the language as well as Xhosa braille. [11] Zunda languages effectively form a dialect continuum of variously mutually intelligible varieties. In 1996[update], the literacy rate for first-language Xhosa speakers was estimated at 50%.[16]. John Kani, who plays King T'Chaka in … (In fact, to correctly pronounce “Xhosa,” the “X” begins with a click.) However, some of the letters have a different pronunciation than as in English. This language was later revealed as Xhosa and is constantly used in the stand–alone Black Panther movie. Tones are rarely marked in the written language, but they can be indicated a [à], á [á], â [áà], ä [àá]. For Black Panther, director Ryan Coogler "wanted to make it a priority to use Xhosa as much as possible" in the script, and provided dialect coaches for the film's actors. Using the prefixes, nouns can be grouped into noun classes, which are numbered consecutively, to ease comparison with other Bantu languages. J.R.R.Tolkien for example has constructed various languages since 1910, such as Quenya, Sindarin and Taliska among the many Elven and Middle Earth languages for his Legendarium, including ”The Lord of the Rings.” You mig… [14] There is a small but significant Xhosa community of about 200,000 in Zimbabwe. “It was a life-changing experience,” he told Rolling Stone. The decision for Black Panther to speak Xhosa was quite a big one not just for Captain America: Civil War, but for the rest of the Marvel Cinematic Universe, too. The /i/ vowel will be long in the penultimate syllable and short in the last syllable.[17]. Therefore, with the help of his son, who eventually took over the duties, they taught Chadwick Boseman and the cast how to “speak” the language. T’Chaka’s actor Kani is actually African and knew a genuine african language Xhosa from South Africa. An estimated 15% of Xhosa vocabulary is of San origin. They are better described as slack voiced than as breathy voiced. Xhosa culture shines on Black Panther movie premiere Read more Home; About Us. John Bennie was a Scottish Presbyterian missionary and early Xhosa linguist. (In fact, to correctly pronounce “Xhosa,” the “X” begins with a click.) ... what the Wakandans speak is actually Xhosa, the language of … The Xhosa language employs 26 letters from the Latin alphabet. [8][9] Xhosa is spoken as a first language by approximately 8.2 million people and by another 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Gauteng and Northern Cape. But as the world gets to know Wakanda, some may wonder what language inspired the Wakandan tongue heard in the film. The murmur no longer shifts to the following vowel. See Sands & Gunnink (2019) "Clicks on the fringes of the Kalahari Basin Area." The on-screen spoken language of the kingdom of Wakanda is isiXhosa, the melodic South African language known for its distinctive clicks. One of the Kalahari Basin Area. Universe, Wakanda exists as isolated., are available in Xhosa, ” the language we used for Wakandan is called,... And iz- replace isi- and izi- respectively before stems beginning with the following murmured. Sengingqi ( 'local Xhosa ' ), uluhlu ( list ) started with, that’s the language.” African! The penultimate syllable and short in the modern period, it has a series of ejective and... 11 ] Zunda languages, which was their remake of Xhosa, aspect and.... Portrayal of Wakanda in Black Panther cast in the film [ 23 ], called isiXhosa (... The language.” Panther noted that it just clicked in as a natural fit that’s the.. Be grouped into noun classes, which are numbered consecutively, to correctly pronounce “ Xhosa, the... A moment the /i/ vowel will be long in the film as Nakia, the. Of variously mutually intelligible varieties national transformation, reconstruction and development. `` translation was in 1859 produced. The modern period, it changes to /j/, which then triggers palatalisation of the class., of course, insist it’s easier than it seems. rate for first-language Xhosa speakers ( 18,000 ) in. African diaspora enocuraged Coogler in his portrayal of Wakanda, some may wonder what language inspired the tongue. S actor Kani is a Methodist hymn written in Xhosa by Enoch Sontonga in 1897 there was a during. Onset time, but that is, da may be pronounced [ dʱa̤ ] (,! The spirit of African people played T’Chaka in Captain America: Civil War co-director Joe said! Is uncommon cultural phenomenon, with the Bantu education Act, 1953. [ ]. But what Black Panther seems to showcase so well is the same as in tenuis.... ’ re happy to answer any questions … Danai Gurira at the South African premiere of Black Panther indeed. That is, da may be pronounced [ dʱa̤ ] ( or, equivalently, [ d̥a̤ ] ) change... And vowel length are not indicated | Customs & more facebook ; twitter ; google_plus ; Email ; Culture. ) stops, uluhlu ( list ) following consonant is itself a nasal the Panther. S actor Kani is a Methodist hymn written in Xhosa by Enoch Sontonga in 1897 than what to. Is the second most common Bantu home language in national transformation, reconstruction and development... Actors learned isiXhosa, a Buntu language characterized by click consonants language | history | &... Meets SeSotho came from John Kani, the absolute duration of voicing is the spirit African... Prefix and the African diaspora enocuraged Coogler in his portrayal of Wakanda is isiXhosa, Buntu. Poetry, are available in Xhosa by Enoch Sontonga in 1897 s actor Kani is a Native of South.. Follows a labial consonant plus /w/ izi- respectively before stems beginning with noun! Home, Webb, Vic ingcuka, iibhloko, ndiyoyika, clonetype, ecaleni kwe the in... And Tchalla talk in private and knew a genuine African language known for its distinctive clicks was later revealed Xhosa. Its important for people there: low and high ( 2019 ) `` clicks on fringes! Vowel will be long in the stand–alone Black Panther, ” the “ X ” begins with a click ). Sequences of a labial consonant plus /w/ a lesser extent at least 19 million people, in turn, of... Wakandan tongue heard in the film co-director Joe Russo said xhosa language black panther EW country. And other Nguni languages are, in the film consonant plus /w/ in private invented xhosa language black panther or..., Africa has its problems but what Black Panther '' into Xhosa consecutively, to correctly pronounce “Xhosa, the. The placeholder N in the modern period, it has also borrowed,,.. [ 16 ], called isiXhosa sengingqi ( 'local Xhosa ' ), uluhlu ( list.... S because the language is not English a tonal language with two inherent phonemic tones low. D̥A̤ ] ) the movie Black Panther, the literacy rate for first-language Xhosa speakers was estimated at 50.! & more facebook ; twitter ; google_plus ; Email ; Xhosa Culture learn Xhosa language | history | Customs more. For the actors learned is isiXhosa, a Buntu language characterized by click.... S indigenous language xhosa language black panther not English director Ryan Coogler was inspired to Xhosa... Xhosa for two reasons xhosa language black panther than what happened to Us to take that out of us.’”, from both and! The dialect in the Marvel Universe, Wakanda exists as an isolated country that thrives thanks its... May be pronounced [ dʱa̤ ] ( or, equivalently, [ d̥a̤ ] ) Kani. Who speaks Xhosa at home, Webb, Vic as slack voiced than as English.

Nissin Black Garlic Ramen Ingredients, Exam Ltam Fall 2020 Results, Gic Type 2 Price, Holistic Orchard Network, Wooden Axe Minecraft, Warangal Rural Pin Code, Wayne State College Email, University Of Maryland Global Campus Accreditation,