appalachian english grammar


thick of “thick with”: It was thick of houses, thick of people up there. let in to + verbal noun: Then he let in to fussing at me because I let her go over there to spend two weeks with Amy. 14.4  Particles Extending or Intensifying Verbal Action. However, in Smokies speech it may introduce a tenseless clause consisting of a noun or a personal pronoun in the objective case followed by a verbal infinitive. That's a human skull. Me and my brother went a-coon-huntin', but we never done any much good. everwhen “when”: Everwhen we got there, Jack reached for his gun. "Went" is often used instead of "gone" as the past participle of the verb "to go. Wolfram, Walt, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. It was just down where that road comes around, “by the time that, before”: We'd oughta do plenty of fishin', “wherever”: They had to get their breakfasts, eat, and be in the field or, “so that, with the result that, to the point that”: The bean beetle got so bad, “of a single event: when, at the moment that”: What did they do with you. Verbs in the third singular conform to general usage in nearly all respects. Just go on up to the Pole Mountain till you come to a ivy thicket. In the 1930s Hall observed a few illiterate speakers using single objective pronouns in subject position, as in the following, but these do not appear on any recordings. He brought him out, down to where that they could get him in a car. In Smokies speech an infinitive is sometimes introduced by for + to when general usage has only to. SME has a set of forms that invert ever and the wh- element (see also §15.1). Occasionally it seems appears as seem, with the subject pronoun omitted (“Seem like I've heard it”),  Verbs ending in -st sometimes take a syllabic suffix (parallel to nouns, shown in §1.7). I allowed this corn was planted in the new of the moon, it grew so tall. Appalachian - traduction anglais-français. The relative pronoun what, common in literary portrayals of mountain speech, is virtually non-existent in speech; Hall, for example, collected only one example of it. They’d turn the sap side up and they'd use that for to spread the fruit on. The house is so far up in the hills that when me and my old woman fuss, can't nobody hear us. Ye (pronounced [yi] or yi] is a variant pronunciation of you, not a retention of the Early Modern English plural ye as found in the King James Bible and elsewhere. As in general American English, the phrase is usually equivalent to “why” (but sometimes “how”) and may introduce a clause marked for tense. Verb inflections in Smokies English to mark agreement and tense are usually the same as in general usage in form, but they are often used in different contexts and follow different rules. In Kortmann, Bernd (ed. "History of Avery County", Biltmore Press, (1964), sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMontgomery2006 (, Kirk Hazen, "African-American Appalachian English. American Speech 72: 227 – 259. "He don't know no better." start to + verbal noun: Then we'd all start to shelling [the corn]. mso-font-pitch:variable; along (followed by a prepositional phrase) “approximately, somewhere, sometime”: Along in nineteen and thirty-three I went into a southern [CCC] camp; He had two brothers that was hid along down on the road that they had to go. Rather than being pleonastic, they suggest a speaker's attention to the terrain and the adaptation of the language to the speakers and their environment. In Appalachian English, the form 'liketa' functions as an adverb and occurs before the past form of a verb. 2.7.1  Combining forms include personal and possessive pronouns (they all, you all, your all, theirs all, and you'un(s) all); in all of these the stress falls on the first element, not the second. Described as "Upper Southern U.S." in The American Heritage Dictionary (4th ed. withouten “without”: I seed him throw a steer once and tie him up withouten any help. There are no instances of we is or you is in the sources, and only one of I's (contraction of I + is, in “I’s diggin’ seng right now”). 19  Prefixes and Suffixes. I think there are worser things than being poor. That dog doesn't know whether he wants in or out. [42], Being part of the greater Southern United States, the dialect shares many of the same terms of the South. These words are not exclusive to the region, but tend to occur with greater frequency than in other English dialects:[48], Early theories regarding the origins of the Appalachian dialect tend to revolve around popular notions regarding the region's general isolation and the belief that the region is culturally static or homogenous. The focus throughout is on structural contrast with general usage. I have got the old collar up there yet that I used on him. That's all the far I want to go. Hain't no use to tell you anything about my sickness, Dr. Abels. (=very much). A speaker who employs the three-way distinction may be able to express a further degree of physical and conceptual distance more economically than those with the two-way distinction. until “so that, with the result that”: I've done this until they could take and interpret the pictures. This includes surveys by the Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States and studies of doctoral students, including the author's own work in the Smokies foothills in Tennessee.4. While "ain't" is used to some extent in most American English dialects, it is used with much greater frequency in the Appalachian dialect. However, the objective pronoun is often employed in subject position when conjoined with another pronoun or with a noun (in the latter case the personal pronoun usually comes first). “to be obligated or accustomed to, deserve”: That train don't, He looked around and he saw a large panther a-laying on a log, They started before sunup and worked to after sundown, if you had a job that, There were men and women living in the Sugarlands with talent and the ability to do most anything. They was Scot Irish. (§2.7.2). Most of my people lived to be up in years, but I had some to die off a-young, too. An "-er" sound is often used for long "o" at the end of a word. afore “before”: I done what you told me afore, and it holp me some. Second person pronouns are often retained as subjects in imperative sentences (e.g., "You go an' get you a cookie"). He wouldn't never charge nobody a dime for nothing like that. The older ones was done through school and married. take to + verbal noun: I was hoein' my field beans when somebody tuck to shootin' over in the pine patch. 3.1.1  The indefinite article a [!] Most features of Smokies speech are shared with types of English in nearby regions, but to date its grammar has received little consideration in the literature.2. Too rarely has it been appreciated for what it is—the native speech of millions of Americans that has a distinguished history and that makes Appalachia what it is just as the region's extraordinary music does. [33][34] Moreover, it cannot occur on –ing forms functioning as nouns or adjectives; the forms must function as verbs. 17.1  Indirect yes-no questions sometimes take the word order of direct questions, with inversion of the subject and auxiliary verb and with the tense conforming to that of the main clause. iffen “if”: Come into the fire iffen you-ones wants to. In the third-person plural, variation between are and is follows the subject-type rule discussed for other verbs (§4.1). I ain't got no money. Originally derived from e'er a (from ever a) and ne'er a (from never a), ary and nary in mountain speech preserve the adjective function of these constructions. mso-font-alt:Geneva; belong to “to be obligated or accustomed to, deserve”: That train don't belong to come till 12:15; He belongs to come- here today. 14.3.1  With verbs (to form phrasal verbs). Accusative case personal pronouns are used as reflexives in situations which, in American English, do not typically demand them (e.g., "I'm gonna get me a haircut"). See §8.1. The use of bad and awful + infinitive often, but not always, implies unfavorable judgment on the part of the speaker, i.e. These are most often employed as adverbs, but some may also function as adjectives to modify nouns. I always thought they got along the best. Examples. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. -some to form adjectives from verbs: blundersome, boresome, troublesome. You all may be need[ing] it one of these days. by Alexander Fenton and Donald A. MacDonald, 81-95. Walt Wolfram and Donna Christian's Appalachian Speech (Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1976) is the only other work broadly focusing on the subject. They done the bigger majority of their logging on Laurel Creek. Singular                                                                       Plural, this, this here, this here’un, this’un (this one)            these, these here, that, that there, that’un (that one)                               them, them there, those, yon/yan                                                                       yon/yan, yonder/yander                                                            yonder/yander. As in many other varieties of English, them occurs as a demonstrative pronoun and adjective in the Smokies. (i.e. book of “book about”: I have a book of him. Could I lay my hands on them, I'd gut them like bantams. mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;} 7.4  Historical Present. afore “before”: I allowed he'd return afore this. If you give me thirty minutes, I mighta coulda thought of some names. 2. In its relation to south of the Midland, it has several terms in common with its North Midland counterpart, including poke (paper bag), hull (to shell), and blinds (shutters). Contrasting with general usage are the following: That (either restrictive or non-restrictive): Human Head Noun, Non-Restrictive Clause: Mister Wilson Queen, that lived there at the campground, he was a song leader when I was a little girl. We had all kinds of apples anywhere you went about. 13.5  Other adverbs differing from general American English include the following. ", Sometimes the past participle of a strong verb such as "do" is used in place of the past tense. ), but very rarely with the pronoun they (except when expressing the historical present, §7.4). [41], "Them" is sometimes used in place of "those" as a demonstrative in both nominative and oblique constructions. -y to form adjectives from nouns: strengthy, thickety, twisty. 11.1  Multiple Negation. Best, the superlative form of the adverb good, may take the definite article. Most convey physical movement. Such an alteration would still mark the speaker as an Appalachian, but not as strongly as with the example given. So me and four cousins began right then and there to lay our plans to go. [30] The a-prefix most commonly occurs with progressives, in both past and non-past tenses. The Queen family was all of them good to sing. Many may be usefully grouped according to how their past tense is formed. a marriage license) is having the three dollars it takes to pay. The weather never got any colder up there much than it did here. {page:Section1;} The prefix is also well known in ballad lyrics. throw off on “belittle, disparage”: She was throwing off on me. A pattern following the same rule involves verbs with a personal-pronoun subject not adjacent to the verb. In traditional Smokies speech, was and were may be used for either singular or plural, but there is today and has long been a strong preference for was in all persons and numbers. to where “to the extent that, to the point that”: The coons was hung up to where they froze up and was alright; I got them to where they would mind what I'd say to them. {font-family:"WP MathA"; 15.4  A redundant that is sometimes used after where, what, and similar combinations to introduce subordinating conjunctions. whenevern “of a periodic or intermittent event: when”: Whenevern it was snowin', you couldn't get half the logs out of that brush. The superlative suffix -est is sometimes added redundantly, including on adjectives that are historically superlative or absolute. I can remember of seeing the soldiers at the close of the Civil War. Try to understand them, because the English that we speak today is based on what our great, great, great, great grandparents spoke before! to indicate possession: the old lady “my wife,” the woman “my wife.”. When one's gone the t'other's proud of it. Have occurs in the third singular, but rarely and apparently only in existential clauses. Mister Wilson Queen that lived there at the campground, he was a song leader when I was a little girl. The indefinite pronoun one is frequently contracted and reduced to ’un (occasionally ’n) when it is unstressed and follows a pronoun (§2.1) or an adjective. 6.1  Inflected forms of have in the present tense parallel those of be. 1. @font-face 2  you, ye / you, you'un, you'all, y'all, you all, ye, 2  you, ye / you, you'uns, you'uns all, y'all, you all, ye. Human Head Noun, Non-Restrictive Clause: Then he handed it down to Caleb, which was Eph's pa. Non-Human Head Noun, Restrictive Clause: They would mind rather than to take the punishment as I would put on them. They’s two coons up the tree. We had nothing to do, only just pick it [=the gun] up and start for home, and Jack naked, all but his britches on. As in traditional English elsewhere, the distinction between proximate, intermediate, and distant is maintained (this vs. that vs. yon). as how “that, whether”: He reckoned as how he would stop by; I don't know as how I can finish it today. much of anything). Occasionally it is followed by an adjective, an adverbial, by and, or by a past-tense verb. mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; Present participles frequently take the prefix. whenever “of a single event: when, at the moment that”: What did they do with you whenever you killed that man two or three year ago? Alternatively, a contracted not may be attached to the verb form (“She's not” or (“She hasn't”; §11.6). Some are no doubt pleonastic, but others make action more graphic and vivid and are commonly used in story telling. yon/yan “over there”: I says, “Yon's the White Caps now”; She's in the field, up yan, gittin' roughness. I didn't ask him when to go nor where to go nor nothing. I sent them up here to serve a warrant on you, and I mean for it to be served! 11.2  Negative Concord. The grammar rules behind 3 commonly disparaged dialects. The drummers would used to come from Morristown. In some cases a verbal particle serves less as an intrinsic element of a phrasal verb than it does to intensify or extend the basic action of the verb. He must've died in the forties. margin-bottom:.0001pt; She’s the aggravatin’est calf I’ve ever had . Is that road much steep? That there sawmill I worked at was there before I married. 16.1  Forms of the expletive. 13.3  Intensifying Adverbs. I'd not yet learned how wary those fish were. They could prove you took a hand in it your own self. Petra Michelle. in place names: the Smoky (= the main ridge of the Smoky Mountains), the Pole Mountain. Hood, I just can't take anything from you for the death of Bill. Certain German-derived words such as smearcase (cottage cheese), however, are present in the North Midland dialect but absent in the Appalachian dialect. include hunt and squat. xxxv-lxix.). mso-footer-margin:1.0in; [78] The tendency of Appalachian speakers to retain many aspects of their dialect for a generation or more after moving to large urban areas in the north and west suggests that Appalachian English is conservative rather than isolated. It is roughly equivalent to, but sometimes co-occurs with, still, in which case still always precedes yet. Appalachian English. mso-ascii-font-family:"Lucida Grande"; Some of these forms have more than one possible interpretation. We had us a big fire made up at the root of the tree. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. (= as good/well as). We've not had a warm enough winter this year. What (only restrictive). everwhere “wherever”: They had to get their breakfasts, eat, and be in the field or everwhere they were working. Thus, never saw and never seen are equivalent to “didn't see,” and Smokies speech has an alternative to the general English pattern of inserting did to negate a verb in the simple past tense, for a one-time, punctual event. [27] Similarly, the phrase "it is" frequently appeared as "it are" in Appalachian English as late as the mid-twentieth century. Often it is partially absorbed by the following vowel. I never seed a deer nor saw nary'un's tracks. Michael Ellis, "Appalachian English and Ozark English. The first I seed him, he was placin' his feet to jump on me. 1931. If he killed ary'un, it was before my recollection. A negated verb form such as don’t, didn't, ain’t, hain’t, or can't may invert with the subject of a clause. Verbs that are regular in general usage are often irregular in the mountains, and vice versa. Yet retains its usage from older English in affirmative clauses (rather than, as in modern English, in only negative, conditional, or interrogative contexts). [39] Montgomery (2009) argues that a-prefixing developed from the preposition "an"/"on" in Early Middle English and suggests that it arose from the loss of the -n from "on" in examples like "hee set before his eyes king Henrie the eight with all his Lordes on hunting in his forrest at Windsore" (Thomas Nashe, "Unfortunate Traveller," 1594). When it follows an adjective (e.g. bursts] it. -->, (Originally published, in a slightly different form in 2004 in the Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English by Michael Montgomery and Joseph S. Hall, pp. This sketch is based largely on four types of sources: A) Interviews recorded by Joseph Hall in 1939 and by personnel of and volunteers for the Great Smoky Mountains National Park between 1954 and 1983. in: We dressed the bear and carried him in home. -er to make regularized comparative forms: gooder. I didn't think about Eloyd nor Enzor neither one to be there. There's not near so many as [there] were at the time we came here. mso-font-alt:Geneva; [38], A-prefixing can be traced back to the 16th century: The construction reached its height from 1500-1700 and developed out of using the preposition "on" and a verbal noun ending in -ing. If it be barn-cured tobacco, you have a different thing. The use of the word ain't is also one of the most salient features of this dialect. {mso-style-name:"Default Para"; Many researchers believe that it is more a part of the Southern dialect region as it shares many components with it. I carried roasting ears, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, and all. I didn't take any toll off any orphans nor widows. See also §4.2.3. This pattern with plural pronouns is very rare. like that “like, that”: It seems like that your best land is the most suitable land to build houses on. He was awful bad to drink. [48][87] Though the word "afeared" originates in Southern England and throughought the region of England known as the Midlands it is nonetheless incorrect to refer to the word "afeared" as "Elizabethan" because it was commonly used in England long after the Elizabethan era (including throughout the 1600s). 14.6  Prepositions are occasionally omitted in Smoky Mountain English, often following another preposition. Historically, the term "Appalachian dialect" refers to a local English variety of southern Appalachia, also known as Smoky Mountain English or Southern Mountain English in the United States,[1] both influential upon and influenced by the Southern U.S. regional dialect, which has become predominant in central and southern Appalachia today, while a Western Pennsylvania regional dialect has become predominant in northern Appalachia. In Appalachia the word simply remained in use and did not get completely supplanted by the word "afraid," unlike in most of the English-speaking world. For example, "Lay down and hush. -ified on nouns and adjectives to form adjectives: fightified, fitified, girlified, prettified, talkified, townified. They went ahead there and went to running a-backwards and forwards. The negative markers never, no, and not/n’t may occur in the same clause with other negative forms (none, nary, nothing, etc.) ; They said he never was much stout after that. “I'm very well” was reported to mean “I am fairly well,” and this semantic process may account in part for the numerous alternatives that occur. Extensive research has been conducted since the 1930s to determine the origin of the Appalachian dialect. They comes back and Scott says he was a-coming over to their house when Lester come back. (= He was a hard drinker. He was the mayor the year they like to went broke down there. One or t'other of them whupped the other one. She was the worst I've ever seen to tell stories. In Smokies speech today there is usually no evidence of a following have and often only the vestige 'd of preceding had. They didn't have anything much to doctor with. Objective forms of personal pronouns occur as indirect objects, direct objects, and objects of prepositions. How did you go about cutting up that many cabbage? Forums pour discuter de Appalachian, voir ses formes composées, des exemples et poser vos questions. come, come, come                                    eat, eat, eat, give, give, give                                    run, run, run. @font-face Appalachia is often viewed by outsiders as a dialect of uneducated people, due largely in part to the fact that this area is perceived as being low-income and lower class. To say that someone is “the workingest” person ever seen may mean that person works very long (“the most”), very well (“the best”), or very hard. However, the a-prefix may not be attached to a verb which begins with an unstressed syllable, such as discover or retire. 6.4  Negative Forms. mso-font-pitch:variable; Others have scorned or dismissed it as uneducated, bad grammar, or worse. 1.7  In SME nouns ending in -sp, -st, or -sk sometimes preserve the longer plural form -es that is inherited from earlier English: The birds have built nestes in the spring house. The second pattern, introduced by how come, is discussed in §17.2. In all persons and numbers ain't is a common alternative of have in the present tense, and it occasionally occurs in the past tense. Hit didn't scare me nary a speck nor a spark. mso-hansi-font-family:"Lucida Grande";} A temporal prepositional phrase with of (especially with a singular indefinite noun as the object) indicate regular, frequent, or habitual activity, in one of three patterns. break to + infinitive: It was a bear a-coming, and so he broke to run. Examples include "All of a sudden a bear come a-runnin'", and "He just kep' a-beggin'".[32]. 14.5  Combination of Forms. Tell us how that you would find and get the sheep in. mso-pagination:widow-orphan; American … This comes from people who teaches biology. Objective forms of personal pronouns occur as indirect objects, direct objects, and objects of prepositions. -es to form the third-person singular of verbs: costes. 5.1  Inflected forms of be in the present tense indicative. and one of his nephews went a-fishing one time, and they was up on what was called Desolation. commence to + infinitive: I commenced to train a yoke of oxen. This here’un was made out of metal, you know. go + verbal noun: He'd just get a little out of his bottle and just go putting that on there. First, the form can negate a past-tense verb referring to a single event or an event having a definite stopping point. Conjugation Documents Grammar Dictionary Expressio. Me, when I had a strong accent. At the same time, for each verb the type of source (identified at the introduction earlier as A, B, C, or D) in which each form is attested is indicated. I've done forgot what they call theirself. It disgustes me now to drive down through this cove. [95] Other distinctive features of Ozark English include phonological idiosyncrasies (many of which it shares with Appalachian English);[93] certain syntactic patterns,[96][97] such as the use of for to, rather than to, before infinitives in some constructions;[98][99] and a number of lexical peculiarities. {mso-style-noshow:yes; traduction appalachian dans le dictionnaire Anglais - Francais de Reverso, voir aussi 'appal',apparatchik',appalling',applicant', conjugaison, expressions idiomatiques I ain't a-fearin’ of this man, nor no man that walks on two laigs. ): A: I i been a-farmin' a little along. excepting “except”: Faultin' others don't git you nowhere, exceptin' in trouble. Singular                                                Plural, 1  my, mine                                           our, ours, ourn, ournses, 2  your, yours, yourn                             your, yours, yourn, your'unses, you'uns, 3  his, hisn                                            their, theirs, theirn. ", Example quoted from Robert Parke, "Our Southern Highlanders,". It was just a sled road but it was all the way you could take anything up there. The word element "-ever" is sometimes reversed in words such as "whatever" ("everwhat"), "whoever" ("everwho"), and "however" ("everhow"), but the usage remains the same (e.g., "Everwho did this is in big trouble"). mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; The biggest majority down there, they care. -ed to form the past-tense and past-participle of verbs: blowed, drawed, growed, knowed, teached, throwed. [4] All Appalachian English is rhotic and characterized by distinct phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon. 6. The dialectal character of Smokies speech is conspicuous in the use of prepositions. ", This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 10:21. That's how come us to leave there, you know. We was poor folks and hired out [to] get enough money to buy cloth to make me a dress. The presentation here is contrastive: to identify and exemplify differences from “general American English” or “general usage” (terms that do not necessarily imply the existence of an invariant or national norm of American English). start off to + verbal noun: They started off to hunting. Definition of appalachia in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. [36], Studies suggest that a-prefixing is more common with older speakers and might therefore disappear completely in a few years. English verbal -s revisited: The evidence from Newfoundland. So she gets up and started to go around the house to look for him to tell him what she thought. to “in”: Ever' bone [of a man's body allegedly murdered] was to its place but one. Human Head Noun, Restrictive Clause: Tom Sparks has herded more than any man as I've ever heard of. fornent “opposite, beside”: He lived over fornent the store; The bear went up a tree ferninst us. Human Head Noun: He come up to a party i had been a-fighting a bear. 's been handed down to him, you see, so he's the third or fourth generation. a- (historically a reduction of the preposition on, this is attached to a variety of forms in Smokies English as an empty, redundant prefix): 1  present-participle forms of verbs (§9): a-going, etc. In negative contexts have and has may be contracted to their subject. mso-generic-font-family:swiss; Gratuit. Human Head Noun, Restrictive Clause: I knowed the White Caps what done the murder. Likewise, was (sometimes contracted to ’s) occurs in the past tense. In Smokies speech the phrases and all, and them, and and those mean “and the rest, and (all) others” and are used after a noun to include associated people (i.e., group or family members) or things. We would gather our apples in of a day and peel our apples of a night and put them out on a scaffold. The word was used frequently in the work of Shakespeare. 9  a-Prefixing. Appalachian English has been misleadingly considered to be a dialect by which linguistic development is entirely reliant upon geography and regional features (Montgomery 27). George O. Curme. If somebody looks sick, we might say, “ he ’ s peaked ” (that ’ s peek-ed). [102] Categorizing all of these different variants under one umbrella may actually further complicate the process of studying the variants of English within the current borders of the Appalachian dialect. 18.3  Interposed Pronouns. 5.2  Uninflected be. afore “before”: That happened afore I left the Smoky. As suggested in §2.1, all can combine with other forms, usually to express inclusiveness. I would get them [=oxen] a-gentled up, and then I put the yoke on them. I was, were                                                we was, were, you was, were                                            you was, were, he/she/it was, were                                    they was, were. He put him a turnip hull on the end of his rifle gun so that he could see the darkness of the bear. I stayed there from the time I were about fifteen years old. Others believe that it is its own dialect with results coming from differing lexical variables. Mary is fixing to make her some cotton dresses. unfortunate, excessive, or undesirable habit, inclination, or tendency. [Boneset is] bitterer than quinine, and hit'll kill. study after “study under, follow after”: He never went to college. That woman is doing too much work, and her in a family way. enduring “during, through”: Did he stay enduring the night? Hain't nobody never set it for any bears since; that's been thirty years ago. Historically this form usually derived from the preposition an or on .

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